header banner zone


Archive for November, 2006

Turkish Music Culture

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Turkey’s cultural fabric is made up of a rich combination of diverse cultures rooted deeply in history. By virtue of its geographical position, Turkey lies at the axis of the cultures of the East, the West, the Middle Eastern, the Mediterranean and Islam. Anatolia is one of the world’s oldest human habitats – hosts of civilizations have called it home – and it enjoys a unique cultural richness with its thousands of years of history. Anatolia’s cultural variety is so rich that we can see great cultural differences even in areas geographically quite close to each other. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Folk/Local Music

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

These are forms of music created by people settled in one particular location, played or recited with great affection, which have become the joint creation of the people of the area in question, and which have been passed down and kept alive down to the present day. Such music bears the traces of local cultures, and the names of the composers are generally unknown. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Ottoman Music

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

The form of music today generally known as TĂŒrk Sanat MĂŒzi?i, or Ottoman Classical Music, matured, developed in form and aesthetics and came to assume the identity of a form of classical music in parallel to the establishment, growth and increasing strength of the Ottoman state itself. This variety of music furnished products dealing with many subjects, such as religion, love and war. Each of these then came to develop its own varieties, styles and communities. Ottoman music was influenced by other musical cultures as new nations became absorbed into the empire, giving and receiving various elements. From the beginning of the 19th century, however, as the empire began to recede and collapse, increasing shallowness and laxness can be seen in Ottoman music. While rich modes and styles had been employed in the past, this concept gradually faded and turned into metropolitan entertainment music. That process has continued to the present day, and the ‘popular song’ has become increasingly popular and popularised, effectively taking the place of the other forms. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Janissary (Mehter) Music

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

In the Turkish tradition, janissary music is a sign of majesty, splendour and might, rather than a vehicle for merriment. The majestic and sacred nature of the state are reflected in the banging of the drum. The unity of the people and the greatness of the state are particularly important concepts in the Turkish view of the nation. This belief and tradition was also to be found in the pre-Islamic Turkish states, and those of the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and very little has since changed. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Religious Music

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

In the framework of music, the forms of music that accompanied or assisted such Islamic obligations as circumcision, fasting and the call to prayer, and known as Mosque Music or Dervish Lodge Music depending on where it was played, can all be considered under the single heading of Religious Music. Forms such as ‘tilavet’ (reading the Kuran), the ‘ezan’ (the call to prayer), and the ‘temcid’ (a call praising Allah chanted by the muezzin immediately after the morning call to prayer during the months of Rajab, ?aban and Ramadan) all fall under the category of mosque music. During the religious dancing or ceremonies practiced by a number of religious sects, especially the dervishes (Mevevi) and Bekta?i, come under the general heading of Mystical Music. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Traditional/Local Musical Instruments

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Cordophones (stringed instruments)

The sound from these instruments is produced by the vibration of the strings. These may be classified into two groups: (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Modern Turkish Classical Music

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Western influence had already begun to be felt in Ottoman music towards the middle of the 19th century. These increased towards the end of the century, and led to efforts to change Ottoman music from monodic to polyphonic. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Popular Music

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Popular music is to a large extent produced by the consumer generation, or even if not later came on to take on many of those characteristics, and takes its form from the criteria of its own particular sectoral features, in such a way that the values that comprise those criteria are not based on the preferences of the culture of any one section of society, and thus is a form that to a large extent brings together different cultures. In the same way that Europe has seen an industrialised society, the increase in artistic products related to popular culture and their increasing spread in all sections of society, and the efforts towards industrialisation in Turkey and the concomittant rise in urbanisation, have all led to an independent popular cultural atmosphere in society. The basic values that the wide community in which popular culture is influential expects from artistic endeavours can be summed up as easy to understand and comprehend and requiring no great depth, thus calling for no great debate. In Turkey, the products of popular culture have lent colour to the last quarter of the 20th century in particular, and as objects, or from the visual point of view, have called to a wide constituency. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Marches and Anthems

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

 ?stiklal Mar??
Composer: Zeki Üngör (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Children’s Songs

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

23 Nisan
Recorded By: The Culture Ministry State Children’s Chorus
By: Hasan Toraganl?

——————————————————————————– (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Folk Architecture

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Folk architecture is the living environment people have created for themselves. We can define local architecture as an architecture formed in the process of anonymous design which later becomes traditional under the influence of various factors. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Folk Architecture

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Folk architecture is the living environment people have created for themselves. We can define local architecture as an architecture formed in the process of anonymous design which later becomes traditional under the influence of various factors. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

The Turkish World Culture

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Balances in the world system have changed as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The process initially led through the economical and political changes, but then affected social-cultural fields, too. Turkey is one of the countries most influenced by the process. Kazakhistan, Kyrgizistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan declared independence, and have since developed relations, particularly in the cultural dimension, with the Turkish Republic due to the existence of a shared history. Turkey has provided a new direction for its cultural policy in that short process, and has expanded ties to economic and political dimensions. Bilateral agreements on education, culture, economic cooperation have been signed and joint projects regarding foundations, institutions and universities initiated. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Turkish folklore

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

In Turkey, folklore studies began at the beginning of the 20th century. Ziya Gökalp mentioned folklore (”halkiyat”) in the magazine “Towards the People” in 1913. Later Riza Tevfik BölĂŒkbasi and Mehmet Fuat KöprĂŒlĂŒ wrote articles on the subject in various magazines. A Folklore Association was set up in 1927 and the “People’s Houses” (1932) both carried out important survey work in this field. Today these activities are continued in various university faculties. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: folk medicine, folklore association, folklore studies, fuat, islamic beliefs, knowledge folk, marriage and death, plant ingredients, religious traditions, rich treasure, seasonal holidays, survey work, traditional ceremonies, traditional clothing, turkish folklore, turkish society, university faculties, veterinary medicine, weather forecasting

Folk dances of Izmir

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Folkdances, Costumes and Musical Instruments of Izmir
Zeybek Dances (a dance of western Anatolia or its music) appear to our minds whenever Western Anatolian Folk Dances especially of Izmir, Aydin, Denizli, Balikesir and Mugla are told. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: arap, baggy trousers, balikesir, black silk, broadcloth, double strings, efe, ezan, folk dances, jandarma, knee caps, mugla, okka, open areas, parmak, posu, silk caftan, western anatolia, yagmur, zeybek

Horon folk dance

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

The origins of Anatolian folk dances go back far into the past, when they were part of divine festivities. This is evident in the sin-sin which is danced at night and takes its name from the moon goddess Sin. Other dances, too, such as the DĂŒz Halay of Sivas, the Basbar of Erzurum, the Bengu of Bergama, the TĂŒrkmen kizi (TĂŒrkmen’s daughter) of Corum, the Topal Kosma of Kastamonu, the GĂŒvende of Bursa, the Harmandali, Arpazli and Yalabik of Kozak and Kasikci, and the Horon and Siskara of Trabzon were all part of sacred rituals. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: bagpipes, bengu, communal events, folk dance, folk dances, generation to generation, halay, horon, kemence, kosma, kozak, moon goddess, music and rhythm, natural character, pagan worship, sacred rituals, sea coast, symbolic meanings, voice music, word comes from

Karagöz and Hacivat, a Turkish shadow play

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Karagöz & Hacivat is a Turkish shadow play taking its name from its main character Karagöz. The origin of the shadow plays is accepted as southeastern part of Asia around Java. Turkish traveler Evliya ?lebi says that the play was first performed at the Ottoman palaces in the late 14th century. Some others say that this play came into Anatolia after Yavuz Sultan Selim, who had conquered Egypt in 1517, had brought the shadow play artists to his court. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: anatolia, bursa, coffee houses, dialects, evliya, hacivat, imitations, indian ink, jointed limbs, karagoz, lebi, new dimension, ottoman period, private houses, puppet theatre, shadow play, shadow plays, shadow puppet, yavuz sultan selim

Nasreddin Hodja

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Nasreddin Hoca was born in 1208 in Hortu village near town Sivrihisar (near Afyon) in the west part of Central Anatolia. He moved in 1237 to Aksehir town to study under notably scholars of the time as Seyid Mahmud Hayrani and Seyid Haci Ibrahim. He served as Kadi, Muslim judge, from time to time till 1284 which is the date of his death. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: aksehir, azerbaijanis, busy bodies, Central Anatolia, cropper, fire wood, good sense of humor, haci, hoca, hodja, india cultures, mulla nasreddin, muslim judge, nasr, nasrudin, sense of humor, silk road, tajiks, train of thought, witty man

Nomads (Yoruks)

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Throughout the coastal region of Turkey You will come across groups of nomadic herders, the yörĂŒks, who in the winter come down to the pastures by the coast and in the summer, when the sun shrivels the vegetation on the coast, travel up into the mountains to the yaylas, the high mountain plateaus and valleys where there is sufficient grass and fodder for the animals until the autumn rains again regenerate the pastures on the coast. In Lycia you will see a few of the traditional black goat-hair tents, usually covered in plastic sheets nowadays, of the truly nomadic yörĂŒks, though many now have more permanent houses on the coast and in the mountains. In other parts of Turkey there are larger numbers of these nomads, who carry everything with them on donkeys and camels along with their flocks of sheep and goats. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: anatolia, baggy trousers, black goat, coastal region, donkeys, ferocious beasts, flocks, goat hair, gypsies, indigenous peoples, kilims, lycia, mountain plateaus, nomadic herders, nomadic herdsmen, nomads, plastic sheets, sheep and goats, style dress, western style

Turkish arts

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Islamic Art varies substantially from Western Art due primarily to restrictions in the Koran on depicting the human form. Rather than being representational of the profane world, the perfection of Ottoman art lies in the pure balance of color, line and rhythm in geometric patterns and designs. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Carpets and kilims

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Various Well-Known Anatolian Rugs
There are four types of rugs produced in Turkey; they are classified  according to the materials used. The categories include:

Silk on silk
Wool on cotton
Wool on wool
Viscose on cotton
Kilims
Tulu
Anatolian Turkish Rugs
At present, it is impossible to prove exactly when and where rug weaving began, as there is no reliable source, but it can be traced back as early the Neolithic age (7000 B.C.). The first examples consisting of warp and weft were textile products which resembled flat weave kilims. Then rugs were created by forming knots to make a pile. According to scientist, rug weaving must have originated in the dry steppe regions where the nomadic tribes lived. Central Asia was a suitable location for the first rug-weaving center because of the availability of land for herding sheep and because of the climate of the region.

Rugs have been used in the home as floor coverings, blankets, tablecloths and decorations. They acquire value as they are used, whereas most objects decrease in value over time.

The oldest example known in the history of hand-make rugs is the one which is exhibited in the St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum in the Russian Federation. This fantastic rug was discovered by the Russian archaeologist Rudenko in the year 1949 and is known as the” Pazarik Rug”. The majority of experts believe that there is a link between ancient Turkish culture and this particular rug; they also believe that the other items found in the Pazarik Turnulus have some connection to Turkish civilization.

Rug weaving in Anatolia first began with the arrival of the Turkish tribes from Central Asia, who settled in this region. Therefore, Anatolian rugs form a branch of ethnic Turkish rugs. Some of the oldest examples known are the eighteen surviving pieces woven by the Selcuk Turks in the 13th century. The motifs in these pieces represented in stylized floral and geometrical patterns in several basic colors and were women in Sivas, Kayseri and the capital Konya.

The art of rug weaving which began with the Selcuks continued with the Ottoman Turks. After the Selcuk Turks and before the Ottomans (during the transition period in the 14th century) animal figures began to appear on the rugs. Although very few of these exist today, they can be seen in the paintings of famous Italian, French, Dutch and Flemish painters. Due to the animal figures on these rugs, they are referred to as “Rugs with Animals”.

By the 15th century, there was a wider variety of animal motifs on the rugs. A new group of rugs with a combination of animal motifs and geometrical patterns appeared around this time. These rugs were called ” Holbein Rugs ” since they appear in paintings by the German artist Hans Holbein. As there are no surviving examples of these rugs today, all research is carried out from the paintings. The works of artists such as Lotto, Memling, Carlo Crivelli, Rafaellino de Gardo, B.Van Orley, Carpaccio, Jaume Huguet were also important sources of research. In this century, Bergama and Usak became important weaving centers in western Anatolia.

The 16th century saw the beginning of the second successful period of Anatolian rug-weaving. The rugs from this period are called “Classical Ottoman Rugs”. The reason these rug are called “Palace rug” is that the design and colors would have been determined by the palace artists and then sent to the weaving centers. this method was similar to that used in the ceramic tile production of that period.

The designs, which consisted of   twisting branches, leaves, and flowers such as tulip, carnations and hyacinths, are woven in a naturalistic style and establish the basic composition of the rug. This style was continued in other regions and can be seen in Turkish rugs today.

In the 16th, 17th and 18th century, Gördes (Ghordes), Kula, Milas, Ladik, Mucur, Kirsehir, Bandirma and Canakkale (Dardanelles) gained importance as rug-weaving centers, along with Usak and Bergama. The rugs woven in some of these regions are known as “Transylvanian Rugs” because they were found in churches in Transylvania.

In the beginning of the 19th and 20th centuries, the rugs woven in Hereke (nearby Istanbul) gained worldwide recognition. These rugs were originally woven only for the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. The finest silk rugs in the world are still being woven in Hereke today.

We can identify the rugs woven in different regions as town or village rugs. The rugs woven in the agricultural areas of Anatolia owe their origins to the settlers or nomadic cultures. In Europe, these rugs (which are woven with wool on wool) are generally called “Anatolian Rugs” In towns where people have settle permanently, the rugs are woven with a wool on cotton combination.

Today in Turkey, there are regions which keep this wonderful tradition alive; such rugs are woven in Konya, Kayseri, Sivas, Hereke, Yagcioglu, Kula, Dösemealti, Taspinar, Isparta, Milas, Bergama, Canakkale, Enize, Kars, Usak, Ghordes, Fethiye and Yahyali.

The Craft of Weaving Rugs
A rug is a handicraft which consist of two parts: the skeleton of the rug, which is formed by vertical and horizontal threads called “warps” and “wefts” and the part which resembles a picture and is like velvet, which is called the “pile” of the rug, made by knotting different colors of thread. In order to form motifs, there are two knotting techniques:

 Symmetrical knotting, double or Turkish knotting. Each knot is made on two warps. In this form of knotting, each end of the pile thread is wrapped all the way around the two warps, pulled down and cut.
Non-symmetrical or single (Persian) knotting. While one end of the thread is wrapped all the wary around the warp, the other end goes just beside the other warp. Then both ends are pulled down and cut.
The steps for weaving a carpet are written below:

The weaving is started from the bottom of the loom. First the kilim part (flat woven part) is woven at the lower edge.
The weaver then takes a piece of  wool which corresponds with the pattern and forms a knot on two warps.
Then she cuts the surplus wool with a knife.
After one row of  knotting is completed, she then passes a weft thread in between the front and back warps. The weft threads are used to strengthen the weaves of the carpet.
Then she will take the “kirkit” (a heavy comb like tool) and vigorously beat down the row of knots and weft, in order to obtain the desired tightness and to make the knots and weft compact.
Following this step, with a pair of adjustable scissors she cuts the surplus colored threads to obtain a uniform level of pile thickness.
This process is continued until the carpet is complete.
Dyes
There are two types of dyes which are used to dye wool for weaving: vegetable dyes and chemical dyes. Rugs which are made using natural dyes are the most preferred. The natural dyes are obtained from three sources: plants; animals; and minerals. Plant sources are used most widely in rug production. Some of the examples of colors obtained  from plants and animal sources are: red (RUBIA TINTORIA); yellow (GENISTA TINTORIA); navy blue (ISOTIS TINCTORIA and INDIGO FERETINTORIA); gray and black (OVER LUS); brown (JUNGLAND REGIA); and red (DACHYLOPIUS COCUS). Dyeing threads by using sources from nature is an art which has been practiced since ancient times. Anatolia has a large variety of plant available for dyeing purposes and this where the craft of dyeing has been improved through centuries of experience. Plants gathered from natural sources are still widely used today.

Motifs
There are many different types of motifs and emblems which can be seen on the rugs. These are  classified into two groups:

Geometrical or Stylized Motifs
Naturalistic and Floral Designs
The motif on the rugs represent Anatolia and Central Asia and their civilizations. These compositions, motifs, and designs are not created at random by an ignorant peasant. The motifs on the rugs represent the origins and culture of a society; therefore, a rug can be considered a cultural item. Each of the designs is meaningful, not an accidental drawing. To understand the meaning of every motif would be a very long and tiring process, as there are so many of them which have accumulated throughout the centuries. The motifs on the rugs represent Anatolian, Central Asian and their civilizations. Some of the most common motifs on rugs are the TREE OF LIFE, symbolizing long life and re-birth; the HORNS OF ANIMALS, which symbolize power, HANDS ON HIPS, symbolizing female fertility and the mother of God; and the HANGING CANDLE, symbolizing the holy (eternal) light.

Kilims
These weaves were constructed with two sets of threads by crossing them at 90-degree angles. In these weaves the perpendicular threads are called the warp and the horizontal threads the weft. This technique was first used for making cloth, but at the same time it set the foundation for weaving kilims. All of these productions are referred to as “flat weaves” Wooden or metal combs were used to push the weft down, so these weaves are called “combed weaves”.

The etymological root the word “kilim” is not known exactly but it has be seen in the Turkish language since the 13th century. The word “kilim” is misused in other languages to refer to all flat weaves other than rugs. However, the word “kilim” is only a name for a weaving technique. Among kilims there are different makes, including “cicim”, “zili” and “sumak”. For centuries, these different designs were traditionally passed down from mother to daughter. Turkey is the only country in the world that has preserved all the different techniques.

These weaves are made by tribe members or by villagers for daily needs. They are named after tribes, families, villages and towns that they are made in, or even after the motifs used on them. The Yoruks and Turkomans have also placed their tribal signatures among the patterns, making these weaves cultural objects as well. According to the latest research, these motifs reflect all the rich  cultural heritage of Anatolia, and for that reason each motif is a symbol or interoperation of the values that were created by people from different cultures.

The common aspect of kilims is the technical manner in which they are produced, which influences the shapes of the patterns. For this reason, the motifs were strongly stylized and were changed into geometrical forms.

Kilims are made in different colors, designs, and compositions and it is possible to find them in various sizes. In different parts of Turkey, kilims are woven with several different combinations of materials, such as all wool, wool and cotton, or all silk.

This group of weaves is often used in contemporary decorations in various locations, making them at the same time valuable objects in the field of art. For this reason, it is also proper to talk about the art of kilims in Anatolia as an art which is distinct from the art of rug-making.

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Musical instruments of Turkey

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Turkish musical folk instruments can be classified as follows:

String Instruments
a) Played with a plectrum
b) Played with fingers
Saz, Baglama, Tar
Bow Instruments
Kabak Kemane, Karadeniz Kemencesi
Wind Instruments
Zurna, Kaval, ?girtma, Mey, Tulum, Sipsi, ?fte
Percussion
Davul, Nagara, Tef, Kasik (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Whirling Dervishes

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the members of the Mevlevi Order (named for their founder Mevlana) from Konya lived in what we might call coisters or monasteries - what to them was a Mevlevihane. The one at Galata in Istanbul is a product of late Ottoman architecture, and quite elaborate in having a tomb, a large chamber for the ceremony of the whirling dance (Sema), a fountain from which water was charitably distributed to the public, a time keeper’s room, cells for the dervishes, separate quarters for the Master, a section for women, a chamber of silence, a large ornate fountain for ablutions, and a laundry room. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Camel wrestling

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

While the Spanish have bullfights, and the Italians cockfights, and the English go hunting with hounds, the Turks have camel wrestling. Camel wrestling is now mostly restricted to the Aegean region though it was once more widespread in Anatolia. In the winter you will see elaborately saddled camels being paraded through the villages with the owner extolling just how his camel is going to make mince-meat of anyone rash enough to challenge his beast. The camels are all fully grown bulls specially fed to increase their bulk further, and the sight of them wrestling one another would seem to promise some spectacular action. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: aegean region, anatolia, blood sport, camel, camels, cockfights, dromedary, herd, hounds, italians, kilograms, knock out, nostrils, precedence, rash, rich man, saliva, spectacular action, spectators, two bulls

Turkish oil wrestling

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

This is one of the most popular sports in Turkey. Yagli gures means literally oiled wrestling. The wrestlers wear tight short leather trousers called “Kispet”, made of water buffalo leather weighing approximately 13 kilograms, and they cover themselves with olive oil. Matches take place throughout the country but the most famous and most important tournament takes place in Edirne by the end of June-beginning of July. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: belly dancing, bulgarian border, edirne, evil forces, ferdowsi, fig tree, lamb roast, leather pant, leather trousers, marmara region, ottoman sultan, parthian, pasha, popular sports, spring festival, traditional musical instruments, turkish oil, water buffalo, wrestling tournaments, yagli gures

Turkish Jereed (Javelin)

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Jereed (Cirit, Çavgan or Gokboru in Turkish) is a traditional sport of Turks played since centuries form the times of Turkic States. Horses were sacred and indispensable for Turks; they were born, grown up, fight, and die on the horse. They even drank Koumiss (kimiz) made of horses? milk. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: cirit, dangerous sport, Eastern Anatolia, handshakes, janissaries, kars, local music, medium height, military music, ottoman empire, ottomans, sultan mahmud, tall horses, traditional sport, turkic, turkish origin, waiting area, war game

Skiing in Turkey

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Winter sports resorts in Turkey are generally located in forested mountains of average height. The following ski centers are easily accessible by road or by Turkish Airlines domestic flights. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: april one, asphalt road, chair lift, chair lifts, domestic flights, family chalets, forested mountains, giant slalom, international ski, resorts in turkey, saklikent, ski center, ski centers, ski facilities, ski instructors, ski lodge, slalom courses, sports resorts, turkish airlines, warm waters

Sports in Turkey

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Sailing and Boat Trips, Gulet Cruising
Turkey has four bordering seas; the Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea, so it not surprising that cruising is a popular sport. There are many cruising charters available. Gulets are traditional motor yachts and gulet holidays are becoming increasingly popular. Best Gulets are build in Marmaris and Bodrum. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: aegean sea, colak, cruising charters, diving gear, gulet holidays, gulets, kizilirmak, marmara sea, mediterranean sea, motor yachts, natural specimens, official documentation, popular sport, qualification training, scuba diving, tourist information office, turkish guide, turkish woman, variable weight, water regime

Mountaineering in Turkey

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

A glance at a topographical map of Turkey reveals that this is a country of mountains. Rising from all four directions, mountains encircle the peninsula of Anatolia. A part of the Alpine-Himalayan  Mountain range, Turkey has mountainous regions with different geological formations. The North Anatolian range skirts the Mediterranean shore. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: alpine meadows, Central Anatolia, cilo, flora and fauna, geological formations, great flood, himalayan mountain range, inactive volcano, magnificent mountains, map of turkey, mediterranean shore, mountainous nature, mt ararat, noah s ark, peninsula of anatolia, resorts in turkey, skiing resorts, southern turkey, taurus range, testament records

Turkish writers and poets 1

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Tevfik Fikret (1867 - 1915)
Great Turkish Poet during the Ottoman period. His real personality in poetry emerged when he became the literary editor of the “Servet-i FĂŒnun” journal. Fikret, while at first writing romantic lyrical poems, made a sharp turn towards social issues after 1908 and the acceptance of the Constitution. His poems called “Sis” (Fog) and “Bir lahza-i TeehhĂŒr” tell us about the repressive regime of the AbdĂŒlhamit days. “Tarih-i Kadim” on the other hand is constructed with lines which tell about religious pressures and a wish to destroy reactionary attitudes. (more…)

Share on Facebook
Tags: bosphorus istanbul, Çesme, constitutional system, dialect, emre, first glance, folk literature, haluk, hymns, language of literature, lyrical poems, ottoman government, ottoman period, outspoken person, repressive regime, servet, sharp turn, tevfik fikret, turkish folk, turkish poet

Turkish writers and poets 2

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Halit Ziya Usakligil (1865 - 1945)
He heads the list of most cultured and most productive members of the new writer’s school. He started to be recognized with his articles in the journal called “Nevruz”, which he started to publish in 1884. In 1886 he published the newspaper “Hizmet” (Service). He published his works such as “Sefile”, “Nedime” and “Bir Muhtiranin Son Yapraklari” in this paper. One of his greatest works “Mavi ve Siyah” (Blue and Black) was first published in the journal Servet-i FĂŒnun in 1894. “Ask-i Memnu” (forbidden love) which he published next raised Halid Ziya to the highest ranks of the Turkish Literature. Following the serialization of his biography as Forty Years (”Kirk Yil”) in the newspaper Vakit, he wrote a novel where he tells the suicide of his son Vedat. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Turkish writers and poets 3

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Nasreddin Hodja (1208 - ?)
Great and famous folk philosopher whose memory has become a legend. His anecdotes which are verbally transmitted at everywhere where Turkish is spoken is popular among all classes and levels of people. They also were transmitted to the everyday language of countries which are neighbors of Turkey; Azerbaijan, Clans of Caucasia, Crimea and Idyll vicinity, Turkistan and the lands of Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan are among them. The fame of Nasreddin Hodja is gradually spreading all over the world and his anecdotes are being translated into several languages. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Turkish architecture

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

In their homeland in Central Asia, Turks lived in dome-like tents appropriate to their natural surroundings, and they were nomads. These tents later influenced Turkish architecture and ornamental arts.

At the time when the Seljuk Turks first came to Iran, they encountered an architecture based on old traditions. Integrating this with elements from their own traditions, the Seljuks produced new types of structures. The most important type of structure they formulated was the” medrese”. The first medresses (Muslim theological schools) were constructed in the 11th century by the famous minister NizamĂŒlmĂŒlk, during the time of Alparslan and Melik Shah. The most important ones are the three government medresses in Nisabur, Tus and Baghdad and the Hargerd Medresse in Horasan. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Turkish bath (hamam)

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

See also
Historic Baths in Istanbul
The tradition of the Turkish bath extends far back, to a time before Turks had reached Anatolia. When the Turks arrived in Anatolia, they brought with them one bathing tradition, and were confronted with another, that of Romans and Byzantines, with certain local variants. The traditions merged, and with the addition of the Moslem concern for cleanliness and its concomitant respect for the uses of water, there arose an entirely new concept, that of the Turkish Bath. In time it became an institution, with its system of ineradicable customs. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Historic Turkish Baths in Istanbul

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Cemberlitas Bath
The Cemberlitas Hammam is located next to the Cemberlitas Column, near the Grand Bazaar. It was built by architect Sinan with the wish of Nurbanu Sultan, mother of Sultan Murat III and wife of Selim II, in 1584 to provide a source of revenue for the Valide-i Atik Mosque in Uskudar. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Mimar Sinan About

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

He is an architect who grew up in one of the most splendid periods of the Ottoman State, and who contributed to this era with his works. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Safranbolu and traditional Turkish houses

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Safranbolu
The known history of Safranbolu, located near the north western Black Sea coast of Anatolia, in KarabĂŒk nearby Zonguldak, dates back as far as 3000 BC. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Political parties in Turkey

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

The Republic of Turkey has functioned under a multi-party system since 1945, generally allowing a wide array of political groups to represent the population. However, the Turkish democracy has experienced three military interventions, with the latest coup taking place in 1980 sweeping SĂŒleyman Demirel (who later founded the DYP party) away from premiership. In 1983, the military allowed Turkey to return to civilian power and appointed Turgut Özal (leader of ANAP party) as Prime Minister. (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

Prime Ministers of the Turkish Republic

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

Prime Ministers of the Turkish Republic
1- Ismet Inonu (1st)   (Biography)
Oct 1923 - March 1924
2 - Ismet Inonu (2nd)
March 1924 - Nov 1924 (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.

The President of the Republic

Friday, November 3rd, 2006

After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the struggle for liberation, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed on 29th of October 1923 and Kemal Ataturk was elected by the Parliament as the first President. From the foundation of the Republic until today, ten Presidents took office: (more…)

Share on Facebook
No tags for this post.