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The Topkapi Alcazar (place)

The Topkapi (Alcazar) place (Turkish: Topkapi Saray?)[1] or in Ottoman: ??????? ??????) is a alcazar in Istanbul, Turkey, which was the official and primary abode in the city-limits of the Ottoman Sultans, from 1465 to 1853. The alcazar was a ambience for accompaniment occasions and aristocratic entertainments and is a aloft day-tripper allure today. The name anon translates as “Cannongate Palace”, from the alcazar getting alleged afterwards a nearby, now absent gate.

Initial architectonics started in 1459, ordered by Absolutist Mehmed II, the conquistador of Byzantine Constantinople. The alcazar is a circuitous fabricated up of four capital courtyards and abounding abate buildings. At the acme of its actuality as a aristocratic residence, the alcazar was home to as abounding as 4,000 people, aforetime accoutrement a aloft breadth with a affiliated shoreline. The circuitous has been broadcast over the centuries, with abounding renovations such as afterwards the 1509 convulsion and 1665 fire.

Topkap? Alcazar gradually absent its accent at the end of the 17th century, as the Sultans adopted to absorb added time in their new palaces alternating the Bosporus. In 1853, Absolutist Abdül Mecid I absitively to move the cloister to the anew congenital Dolmabahçe Palace, the aboriginal European-style alcazar in the city. Some functions, such as the authoritative treasury, the library, abbey and mint, were retained though.

After the end of the Ottoman Ascendancy in 1921, Topkap? Alcazar was adapted by government decree on April 3, 1924 into a architectonics of the authoritative era. The Topkap? Alcazar Architectonics is beneath the administering of the Admiral of Culture and Tourism. The alcazar circuitous has hundreds of accommodation and chambers, but alone the a lot of important are attainable to the attainable today. The circuitous is attentive by admiral of the admiral as able-bodied as armed guards of the Turkish military. Topkap? Alcazar is listed a allotment of those monuments acceptance to the celebrated areas of Istanbul, added to the UNESCO Apple Heritage List in 1985.[2]

The alcazar is abounding of examples of Ottoman architectonics and aswell contains ample collections of porcelain, robes, weapons, shields, armor, Ottoman miniatures, Islamic calligraphic manuscripts and murals, as able-bodied as a affectation of Ottoman abundance and jewelry.



Byzantine charcoal in the Additional Courtyard.The alcazar circuitous is amid on the Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu), a bank overlooking the Aureate Horn and the Sea of Marmara, with the Bosphorus in apparent afterimage from abounding credibility of the palace. The website is arresting and one of the able credibility abutting to the sea. During Greek and Byzantine times, the acropolis of the age-old Greek city-limits of Byzantion stood here. There is an underground Byzantine cistern, amid in the Additional Courtyard, which was acclimated throughout Ottoman times, as able-bodied as charcoal of a baby church, the alleged Alcazar Basilica on the acropolis accept aswell been biconcave in avant-garde times. The abutting Abbey of Hagia Eirene, admitting amid in the Aboriginal Courtyard, is not advised a allotment of the old Byzantine acropolis.

Antecedent construction

After the Ottoman acquisition and the Abatement of Constantinople in 1453, Absolutist Mehmed II begin the authoritative Byzantine Abundant Alcazar of Constantinople abundantly in ruins.[3] The Ottoman cloister initially set itself up in the Old Alcazar (Eski Saray?), today the website of Istanbul University. The Absolutist afresh searched for a bigger breadth and chose the old Byzantine acropolis, acclimation the architectonics of a new alcazar in 1459. It was originally alleged the New Alcazar (Yeni Saray?) to analyze it from the antecedent residence. It accustomed the name “Topkap?” in the 19th century, afterwards a (now lost) Topkap? Aboideau and bank pavilion.


Scale archetypal of Seraglio Point with the Topkap? Alcazar circuitous

Scale archetypal of the close allotment of the alcazar (2nd-4th courtyards)Sultan Mehmed II accustomed the basal blueprint of the palace. The able point of the bank he_ acclimated for his clandestine abode and centermost buildings.[4] From the centermost amount assorted architectonics and pavilions amidst it and grew down the bank appear the bank of the Bosphorus. The able circuitous was amidst by top walls, some of which anachronous backto the Byzantine acropolis. This basal blueprint absolute the arrangement of approaching renovations and extensions. By an annual of the abreast historian Kritovolous of Imbros the absolutist also

“ [...] took affliction to arouse the actual best apprentice from everywhere - masons and stonecutters and carpenters [...]. For he was amalgam abundant edifices which were to be annual seeing and should in every annual vie with the greatest and best of the past. For this acumen he bare to accord them the a lot of accurate blank as to apprentice and abstracts of abounding kinds and the best quality, and he aswell was anxious with the actual abounding and abundant costs and outlays.”[5] ”

Accounts alter as to if architectonics of the close amount of the alcazar started and was finished. Kritovolous gives the dates 1459-1465, added sources advance a finishing date in the backward 1460s.[6]

Contrary to added aristocratic residences which had austere adept plans, such as Schönbrunn Alcazar or the Alcazar of Versailles, Topkap? Alcazar developed over the advance of centuries, with assorted sultans abacus and alteration assorted structures and elements. The consistent aberration is the aftereffect of this aberrant advance and change over time.[7], although the capital blueprint by Mehmed II as still preserved. A lot of of the changes occurred during the administering of Absolutist Suleyman from 1520-1560. With the accelerated amplification of the Ottoman Empire, Suleyman capital the growing ability and celebrity to be reflected in his residence. New barrio were complete or enlargened, The able artist amenable in that aeon was the Persian Alaüddin, aswell accepted as Acem Ali.[8]. He was aswell amenable for the amplification of the Harem.

In 1574 a abundant blaze destroyed the kitchens. Sinan was entrusted by Absolutist Selim II to rebuilt the destroyed locations broadcast them, as able-bodied as the Harem, baths, the Buried Alcove and assorted bank pavilions.[9]. By the end of the 16th aeon the alcazar acquired its present appearance.

The alcazar is an all-encompassing circuitous with an array of assorted low barrio complete about courtyards, commutual with galleries and passages, rather than a alone caked structure. About none of the barrio are college than two storeys. Interspersed are trees, breadth and baptize fountains, to accord a auspicious activity to the citizenry and board places breadth they could repose. The barrio amid the courtyards, and activity revolved about them. Doors and windows faced appear the courtyard, in adjustment to actualize an attainable atmosphere for the citizenry as able-bodied as board for air-conditioned air during hot summers.

The alcazar admixture if apparent from a birds-eye actualization has the actualization of a asperous rectangle, disconnected into four capital courtyards and the harem. The capital arbor is from south to north, the exoteric (first) courtyard starting at the south with anniversary alternating courtyard able up north. The aboriginal courtyard was the one that was a lot of accessible, while the centermost (fourth) courtyard and the harem were the a lot of inaccessible, getting the sole clandestine breadth of the sultan. The fifth courtyard was in absoluteness the a lot of alien rim of the alcazar breadth abutting the sea. Admission to these courtyards was belted by top walls and controlled through gates. Distant from the four to 5 capital courtyards, assorted added mid-sized to baby courtyards abide throughout the complex. The absolute admeasurement of the circuitous varies from about 592,600 aboveboard meters[10] to 700,000 aboveboard meters, depending on which locations are measured.[11]

Basketmakers’ Kiosk (foreground), Topkap? Alcazar in the back.The southern and western abandon bound the ample aloft authoritative annual park, today Gülhane Park. Surrounding the alcazar admixture on the southern and eastern ancillary is the Sea of Marmara. Assorted accompanying barrio such as baby summer palaces (kasr?), pavilions, kiosks (kö?kü) and added structures for aristocratic pleasures and functions aforetime existed at the bank in breadth aswell accepted as the Fifth Place, but accept aback abolished over the advance of time due to carelessness and the architectonics of the bank railroad in the 19th century. However, the endure actual bank anatomy of the alien banned that still exists today is the Basketmakers’ Kiosk, complete in 1592 by Absolutist Murad III. Appropriately the absolute breadth admeasurement of Topkap? Alcazar was in actuality abundant aloft than what it appears today.


Topkap? Alcazar was the capital abode of the absolutist and his court. It was initially the bench of government as able-bodied as the authoritative residence. Even admitting admission was carefully regulated, citizenry of the alcazar rarely had to adventure out aback the alcazar functioned about as an free entity, a city-limits aural a city. Admirers and appointment accommodation and areas served for the political apparatus of the empire. For the association and visitors, the alcazar had its own baptize accumulation through underground cisterns and the abundant kitchens provided for aliment on a circadian basis. Dormitories, gardens, libraries, schools, even mosques were at the annual of the court.

A austere cloister august codification circadian life, in adjustment to ensure authoritative aloneness from the blow of world.[12] The assumption of authoritative aloneness is a attitude that was apparently affiliated from the Byzantine court. It was codification by Mehmed II in 1477 and 1481 in the Kanunname Code, which adapted the rank adjustment of cloister officials, the authoritative hierarchy, and agreement matters.[13] This assumption of added aloneness over time was reflected in the architectonics actualization and arrange of assorted halls and buildings. The architects had to ensure that even aural the palace, the absolutist and his ancestors could adore a best of aloofness and discretion, authoritative use of broiled windows and architectonics abstruse passageways.[14]

Authoritative Gate

The Authoritative Aboideau (Bâb-? Hümâyûn)The capital artery able to the alcazar is the Byzantine processional Mese, today Bassinet Yolu (Street of the Council). The Mese was acclimated for authoritative processions during the Byzantine and Ottoman era. It leads anon to the Hagia Sophia and takes a about-face northwest appear the alcazar aboveboard breadth the battleground Bubbler of Ahmed III stands. The absolutist would admission the alcazar through the Authoritative Aboideau (Arabi: Bâb-? Hümâyûn or Greek: Porta Augusta), aswell accepted as Aboideau of the Absolutist (Turkish: Saltanat Kap?s?) amid to the south of the palace.[15] This massive gate, originally dating from 1478, is now covered in 19th-century marble. The aggregate of this rock aboideau accentuates its arresting character. Its axial able leads to a high-domed passage. Gilded Ottoman calligraphy adorns the anatomy at the top, with verses from the Angelic Koran and tughras of the sultans. Articular tughras are of Absolutist Mehmed II and Abdül Aziz I, who adapted the gate.[16] On anniversary ancillary of the anteroom are accommodation for the guard. The aboideau was attainable from morning adoration until the endure atramentous prayer.

According to old documents, there was a board accommodation aloft the aboideau breadth until the additional bisected of the 19th century.[17] It was acclimated aboriginal as a pavilion by Mehmed, afterwards as a annal for the backdrop of those who died axial the alcazar afterwards brood and eventually as the accepting administering of the treasury. It was aswell acclimated as a angle point for the ladies of the harem on appropriate occasions.[18]

The Authoritative Aboideau is the capital admission into the Aboriginal Courtyard.

Aboriginal Courtyard

Church of Hagia Eirene in the Aboriginal Courtyard

The Authoritative Excellent (Darphane-i Âmire)The Aboriginal Courtyard (I. Avlu or Alay Meydan?) spans Seraglio Point and is amidst by top walls.[19]

This Aboriginal Courtyard functioned as an alien belt or esplanade and is of all the courtyards the better one of the palace. The abrupt slopes able appear the sea had already been terraced beneath Byzantine rule. The Aboriginal Courtyard absolute absolutely anatomic structures and some aristocratic ones, abounding of which accept abolished over time. [20] The structures still actual today are the aloft Authoritative Excellent (Darphane-i Âmire, complete in 1727), the abbey of Hagia Irene and assorted fountains. The Byzantine abbey of Hagia Irene was never destroyed by the acquisition Ottomans and survived by getting acclimated a armory and aristocratic armoury. [21]

This cloister was aswell accepted as the Cloister of the Janissaries or the Parade Court. Visitors entering the alcazar would chase the aisle appear the Aboideau of Salutation and the Additional Courtyard of the palace. Cloister admiral and janissaries would bandage up the aisle dressed in their best garbs and waiting. The visitors had to alight from the horses by the end of the Aboriginal Courtyard at the alpha of the Additional Courtyard.[22]

Aboideau of Salutation

The Aboideau of Salutation (Bâb-üs Selâm), admission to the Additional courtyard of Topkap? PalaceThe ample Aboideau of Salutation (Arabic: Bâb-üs Selâm), aswell accepted as the Average Aboideau (Turkish: Orta Kap?), leads into the alcazar and the Additional Courtyard. This crenulated aboideau has two ample octagonal acicular towers. The date of architectonics of this aboideau is not clear, aback the architectonics of the architectonics is of Byzantine admission rather than Ottoman. It is speculated that the aboideau emulates the Aboideau of St. Barbara (Cannon Gate) which acclimated to tbe aristocratic bank admission to the alcazar breadth from the bank of the Bosphorus.[23] An inscription at the aperture dates this aboideau to at atomic 1542 during the administering of Absolutist Mehmed II. In a miniature painting from the Hünername from 1584, a low-roofed anatomy with three windows aloft the able amid the architectonics is acutely visible[24], apparently a guards’ anteroom that has aback disappeared.[25] The aboideau is abundantly busy on both abandon and in the top allotment with religious inscriptions and monograms of sultans.

No one distant for official purpose and adopted dignitaries were accustomed admission through the gate. All visitors had to alight by the Average Gate, aback alone the absolutist was accustomed to admission the aboideau on horseback.[26] This was aswell a Byzantine attitude taken from the Chalke Aboideau of the Abundant Palace.

The Bubbler of the Apache (Cellat Çe?mesi) is breadth the apache purportedly done his calmly and brand afterwards a decapitation. There is altercation if absolutely this is the fountain. It is amid on the appropriate ancillary of the Aboriginal Courtyard.[27]

Additional Courtyard

Second Courtyard, with the kitchens to the appropriate

Sultan Selim III captivation an admirers in foreground of the Aboideau of Felicity in the Additional Courtyard. Associates are accumulated in a austere protocolUpon casual the Average Gate, the company enters the Additional Courtyard (II. Avlu), or Bassinet Aboveboard (Divan Meydan?) was a esplanade abounding of peacocks and gazelles, acclimated as a acquisition abode for courtiers.[28][29] This courtyard is advised the alien one (Birûn). Alone the Absolutist was accustomed to ride on the atramentous pebbled walks that leads to the Third Courtyard.

The courtyard was completed apparently about 1465, but accustomed its final actualization about 1525-1529 during the administering of Mehmed II.[30] This courtyard is amidst by the aloft alcazar hospital, bakery, Janissary quarters, stables, the authoritative Harem and Bassinet to the arctic and the kitchens to the south. At the end of the courtyard the Aboideau of Felicity marks the admission to the Third Courtyard. The able breadth is unified by a affiliated marble colonnade, creating an ensemble.

Numerous artefacts from the Roman and Byzantine periods accept been begin on the alcazar website during contempo excavations. These awning sarcophagi, baptismal fonts, breastwork slabs and pillars and capitals. They are on affectation in the Additional Courtyard in foreground of the authoritative kitchens. Amid beneath the Additional Courtyard is a alembic that dates to Byzantine times. It is commonly bankrupt to the public.

The Additional Courtyard was primarily acclimated by the absolutist to allocate amends and ascendancy audiences. This was done actuality aswell to affect visitors. Assorted Austrian, Venetian and French ambassadors accept larboard accounts of how such an admirers looked like. The French agent Philippe du Fresne-Canaye led an admiral in 1573 to the sultan:

“ At the appropriate duke was built-in the Agha of Janissaries, actual abreast the gate, and next to him some of the able grandees of the court. The Agent saluted them with his able and they got up from their seats and angled to him. And at a accustomed moment all the Janissaries and added soldiers who had been continuing cocked and afterwards weapons alternating the bank of that cloister did the same, in such a way that seeing so abounding turbans acclivity calm was like celebratory a fast acreage of able blah affective acclaim beneath the ablaze breath of Zephyr […] We looked with abundant amusement and even greater annual at this alarming amount of Janissaries and added soldiers continuing all alternating the walls of this court, with calmly abutting in foreground in the address of monks, in such blackout that it seemed we were not searching at men but statues. And they remained anchored in that way added than seven hours, afterwards talking or moving. Certainly it is a lot of absurd to appreciate this conduct and this accordance if one has not apparent it […]”[31]. ”

A austere agreement that absolute the activity and apparatus of the Additional Courtyard was to ensure conduct and respect, as able-bodied as board an air of majesty to the court.

Authoritative carriages

Some of the authoritative carriagesDirectly abaft the Aboideau of Salutation, on the northeast side, the authoritative carriages are briefly apparent in the aloft alien stables and accouter rooms. This is a about low building, adapted in 1735 if a new beam was installed. Its roof is one of the few undomed roofs to absorb its 15th aeon shape. Abounding carriages were destroyed in a blaze in the antecedent stables in the backward 19th century. The carriages on affectation are some of the sultan’s carriages including the accompaniment carriage, the accustomed of the Valide Absolutist (Queen Mother), and accessory cloister carriages. Some of the carriages were adopted fabricated cars that were alien for the court. Amid next to the carriages to the arctic are the all-encompassing alcazar kitchens.

Alcazar kitchens

The alcazar kitchens with the alpine chimneysThe continued alcazar kitchens (Saray Mutfaklar?) are a arresting affection of the palace. Some of the kitchens were aboriginal congenital in the 15th aeon at the time if the alcazar was constructed. They were modeled on the kitchens of the Sultan’s alcazar at Edirne. They were continued during the administering of Absolutist Süleyman the Arresting but austere down in 1574. The kitchens were adapted and brought up to date according to the needs of the day by the cloister artist Mimar Sinan. [32]

Rebuilt to the old plan by Sinan, they anatomy two rows of twenty advanced chimneys (added by Sinan), ascent like endless from a address from domes on octagonal drums. The kitchens are abiding on an centralized artery accession amid the Additional Courtyard and the Sea of Marmara. The admission to this area is through the three doors in the balustrade of the Additional Courtyard: the Authoritative commissariat (lower kitchen) door, authoritative kitchen aperture and the confectionery kitchen door.

The alcazar kitchens abide of ten domed buildings: Authoritative kitchen, Enderûn (palace school), Harem (women’s quarters), Birûn (outer annual area of the palace), kitchens, beverages kitchen, confectionery kitchen, creamery, storerooms and accommodation for the cooks. They were the better kitchens in the Ottoman Empire. The commons for the Sultan, the association of the Harem, Enderûn and Birûn (the close and alien casework of the palace) were able here. Aliment was able for about 4,000 people. The kitchen agents consisted of added than 800 people, ascent to 1,000 on religious holidays. As abounding as 6,000 commons a day could be prepared. Even the confined of aliment to the absolutist was carefully adapted by protocol. [33]

The kitchens included dormitories, baths and a abbey for the employees, a lot of of which accept abolished over time.[34]

Apart from announcement kitchen utensils, today the barrio board a argent ability and accoutrement collection, as able-bodied as ample collections of Chinese blue-and-white, white, and celadon porcelain.

Ceramics and celadon collection

Blue-and-white Chinese porcelain-ware from the Topkap? collectionChinese and Far East ceramics was awful admired and was transported by biscuit caravans over the Silk Road or by sea. The 10,700 pieces of Chinese, Japanese and Turkish ceramics displayed actuality are attenuate and precious. [35] The Chinese ceramics accumulating ranges from the backward Song Absolutism (13th c.) and the Yuan Absolutism (1280-1368), through the Ming Absolutism (1368-1644) to the Qing Absolutism (1644-1912). This architectonics aswell contains one of the world’s better collections of 14th-century Longquan celadon. The accumulating has about 3,000 pieces of Yuan and Ming Absolutism celadons.[36] Those celadon were admired by the Absolutist and the Queen Mother because it was declared to change colour if the aliment or alcohol it agitated was poisoned.[37] The Japanese accumulating is mainly Imari porcelain, dating from the 17th to the 19th century. Added locations of the accumulating awning white ceramics from the alpha of the 15th aeon and “imitation” Blue-and-White and Imari ceramics from Annam, Thailand and Persia.[38]

Authoritative Stables

Located on the added ancillary of the courtyard, about 5-6 meters beneath arena akin are the authoritative stables (Istabl-? Âmire). The stables awning the buried stables (Has Ahir) and were complete beneath Mehmed II and adapted beneath Suleyman. A all-inclusive accumulating of accouter treasures (Raht Hazinesi) is kept in the buried stables. Aswell amid there is the baby 18th aeon abbey and ablution of Be?ir A?a (Be?ir A?a Camii ve Hamam?), the able atramentous eunuch of Mahmud I. [39]

Dormitories of the Halberdiers with Tresses

At the end of the authoritative stables are the Dormitories of the Halberdiers with Duster (Zülüflü Baltac?lar Ko?ušu). These abode were acclimated by a bandage that was amenable for accustomed copse to the alcazar rooms, charwoman and confined annual for the harem and the abode of the macho pages, affective furnitures and acting as masters of ceremonies. The halberdiers wore affiliated duster to announce their college position. The aboriginal acknowledgment of this bandage is about 1527, if they were accustomed to bright the anchorage advanced of the army during a campaign. The billet was founded in the 15th century. It was continued by the able artist Davud A?a in 1587, during the administering of Absolutist Murad III. The dormitories are complete about a capital courtyard in the acceptable blueprint of an Ottoman house, with baths and a mosque, as able-bodied as recreational accommodation such as a pipe-room. On the alfresco and axial of the complex, abounding pious foundation inscriptions about the assorted duties and budget of the abode can be found. In adverse to the blow of the palace, the abode are complete by wood, which is corrective in red and green.[40]

Authoritative Council

Porch alfresco the Authoritative Bassinet

View into the Kubbealt?, with the Aureate Window arresting on the appropriate

The Admirable Vezier in an audience, painting from the alternation by Jean-Baptiste van Mour in 1724The Authoritative Board (Dîvân-? Hümâyûn) architectonics is the alcove in which the ministers of state, board ministers (Dîvân Heyeti), the Authoritative Council, consisting of the Admirable Vizier (Pa?a Kap?s?), viziers, and added able admiral of the Ottoman state, captivated meetings. It is aswell alleged Kubbealt?, which agency “under the dome”, in advertence to the able in the board capital hall. It is anchored in the northwestern bend of the courtyard next to the Aboideau of Felicity.

The aboriginal Board accommodation in the alcazar were congenital during the administering of Mehmed II, and the present architectonics dates from the aeon of Süleyman the Arresting by the able artist Alseddin. It has aback undergone several changes, was abundant damaged and adequate afterwards the Harem blaze of 1665, and according to the admission inscription it was aswell adequate during the periods of Selim III and Mahmud II.[41]

From the 18th aeon onwards, the abode began to lose its aboriginal importance, as accompaniment administering was gradually transferred to the Sublime Porte (Bâb-? Âli) of the Admirable Viziers. The endure affair of the Board in the alcazar accommodation was captivated on Wednesday, August 30, 1876, if the chiffonier (Vükela Heyeti) met to altercate the accompaniment of Murat V, who had been ailing for some time.

The board anteroom has assorted entrances both from axial the alcazar and from the courtyard. The balustrade consists of assorted marble and porphyry pillars, with an adorned blooming and white-coloured board beam busy with gold. The attic is covered in marble. The entrances into the anteroom from alfresco are in the bizarre style, with gilded grills to accept accustomed light. While the pillars are beforehand Ottoman style, the bank paintings and decorations are from the afterwards bizarre period. Inside, the Authoritative Board architectonics consists of three abutting capital rooms. Two of the three domed accommodation of this architectonics attainable into the balustrade and the courtyard. The Divanhane, congenital with a board balustrade at the bend of the Bassinet Cloister (Divan Meydani) in the 15th century, was afterwards acclimated as the abbey of the board but was removed in 1916. There are 3 domed chambers[42]:

The aboriginal alcove breadth the Authoritative Board captivated its deliberations is the Kubbealt?.

The additional alcove was active by the secretarial agents of the Authoritative Divan.

In the abutting third alcove alleged Defterhane, annal were kept by the able clerks. The endure allowance aswell served as an annal in which abstracts were kept.

On its façade are ballad inscriptions which acknowledgment the apology plan agitated out in 1792 and 1819, namely beneath Absolutist Selim III and Mahmud II. The bizarre decorations on the façade and axial the Authoritative Board date from this period. The capital alcove Kubbealt? is about in busy with Ottoman Kütahya tiles.[43] Three affiliated sofas alternating the abandon were the seats for the officials, with a baby address in the middle. The baby gilded brawl that hangs from the beam represent the earth. It is placed in foreground of the sultan’s window and symbolises him dispensing amends to the world, as able-bodied as befitting the admiral of his viziers in check.[44][45]

In the Authoritative Board diplomacy the political, authoritative and religious diplomacy of the accompaniment and important apropos of the citizens were discussed. The Authoritative Board commonly met four times a anniversary (Saturday, Sunday, Monday and Tuesday) afterwards adoration at dawn.[46] The diplomacy of the Authoritative Board were run according to an busy and austere protocol.

Council associates such as the Admirable Vizier, viziers, able aggressive admiral of the Muslim Judiciary (Kazaskers) of Rumelia and Anatolia, the Minister of Accounts or active of the Treasury (defterdar), the Minister of Adopted Diplomacy (Reis-ül-Küttab) and sometimes the Admirable Müfti (Sheikh ül-?slam) met actuality to altercate and adjudge the diplomacy of state.[47] Added admiral who were accustomed were the Ni?ancilar secretaries of the Authoritative Board and keepers of the aristocratic cipher (tu?ra) and the admiral answerable with the assignment of autograph official diplomacy (Tezkereciler), and the clerks recording the resolutions.[48]

From the window with the aureate barbecue the Absolutist or the Valide Absolutist was able to chase deliberations of the board afterwards getting noticed.[49] The window could be able from the authoritative abode in the abutting Belfry of Amends (Adalet Kulesi).[50] If the absolutist rapped on the grill[51] or drew the red blind the Board affair was terminated, and the viziers were summoned one by one to the Admirers Anteroom (Arz Odas?) to present their letters to the sultan.

All the statesmen, distant from the Admirable Vizier, performed their aurora prayers in the Hagia Sophia and entered the Authoritative Aboideau according to their rank, casual through the Aboideau of Salutation and into the bassinet chamber, breadth they would delay for the accretion of the Admirable Vizier. The Admirable Vizier performed his prayers at home, and was accompanied to the alcazar by his own attendants. On his accretion there, he was accustomed a august welcome, and afore proceeding to the authoritative divan, he would admission the Aboideau of Felicity and address it as if paying his respects to the aboideau of the sultan’s house. He entered the alcove and took his bench anon beneath the sultan’s window and board commenced. Diplomacy of the accompaniment were about discussed until noon, the associates of the Board dined in the accommodation afterwards which petitions were heard here.[52] All the associates of Ottoman society, men and women of all creeds were accepted a hearing. An important celebration was captivated to mark the aboriginal Authoritative Board of anniversary new Admirable Vizier, and aswell to mark his presentation with the Authoritative Allowance (Mühr-ü Hümayûn). The a lot of important celebration took abode every three months during the handing out of salaries (ulûfe) to the Janissaries.[53] The accretion of adopted dignitaries was commonly abiding for the aforementioned day, creating an breach to reflect the abundance and ability of the state. Ambassadors were afresh accustomed by the Admirable Vizier in the Board chambers, breadth a feast was captivated in their honour.

Belfry of Justice

The Belfry of Amends next to the Authoritative Board hallThe Belfry of Amends (Adalet Kulesi) is amid average the Authoritative Board and the Harem. The belfry is several belief top and the tallest anatomy in the palace, authoritative it acutely arresting from the Bosphorus as a landmark. The belfry was apparently originally complete beneath Mehmed II and afresh adapted and enlargened by Suleiman I amid 1527-1529.[54]

Sultan Mahmud II rebuilt the lantern of the belfry in 1825 while application the Ottoman base. The alpine windows with affianced columns and the Renaissance pediments arm-twist the Palladian style.[55]

The belfry symbolises the abiding acuity of the absolutist adjoin injustice. Everyone from distant was declared to be able to see the belfry to feel assured about the sultan’s presence. The belfry was aswell acclimated by the absolutist for examination pleasures. The old belfry acclimated to accept broiled windows, enabling him to see afterwards getting seen, abacus to the ambience of seclusion. The aureate window in the Authoritative Board is attainable through the Belfry of Justice, appropriately abacus to the accent of the apologue of justice.[56]

Authoritative Treasury

The aloft Authoritative Treasury houses the armoury accumulating todayThe architectonics in which the accoutrements and armour are apparent was originally one of the alcazar treasuries (Dîvân-? Hümâyûn Hazinesi / Hazine-? Âmire). Aback there was accession (”inner”) treasury in the Third Courtyard, this one was aswell alleged alien treasury (d?? hazine).[57] Although it contains no anachronous inscriptions, its architectonics address and plan advance that it was congenital at the end of the 15th aeon during the administering of Süleiman I. It afterwards underwent abundant alterations and renovations. It is a anteroom congenital of rock and brick with eight domes[58], anniversary 5 x 11.40 m.

This treasury was acclimated to accounts the administering of the state. The kaftans accustomed as presents to the viziers, ambassadors and association of the alcazar by the banking administering and the absolutist and added admired altar were aswell stored here. The janissaries were paid their annual accomplishment (called uluefe) from this treasury, which was bankrupt by the authoritative allowance entrusted to the admirable vizier.[59] In 1928, four years afterwards the Topkapi Alcazar was adapted into a museum, its accumulating of accoutrements and armour was put on exhibition in this building.

During excavations in 1937 in foreground of this building, charcoal of a religious Byzantine architectonics dating from the fifth aeon were found. Aback it could not be articular with any of the churches accepted to accept been congenital on the alcazar site, it is now accepted as “the Basilica of the Topkap? Palace” or artlessly Alcazar Basilica.

Also amid alfresco the treasury architectonics is a ambition rock (Ni?an Ta??), which is over 2 metres tall. This rock was erected in celebration of a almanac burglarize attempt by Selim III in 1790. It was brought to the alcazar from Levend in the 1930s.

Accoutrements Collection

The accoutrements accumulating (Silah Seksiyonu Sergi Salonu), which consists primarily of weapons that remained in the alcazar at the time of its conversion, is one of the richest assemblages of Islamic accoutrements in the world, with examples spanning a aeon of 1300 years from the 7th to the 20th century. The palace’s accumulating of accoutrements and armour consists of altar bogus by the Ottomans themselves, or aggregate from adopted conquests, or accustomed as presents. Ottoman weapons anatomy the aggregate of the collection, but it aswell includes examples of Umayyad and Abbasid swords as able-bodied as Mamluk and Persian armour, helmets, swords and axes. A basal amount of European and Asian accoutrements accomplish up the butt of the collection. Currently on exhibition are some 400 weapons, a lot of of which buck inscriptions.

Aboideau of Felicity

The Aboideau of Felicity (Bâbüssaâde)

Stone brand for the Angelic BannerThe Aboideau of Felicity (Bâbüssaâde or Bab-üs Saadet) is the admission into the Close Cloister (Enderûn), aswell accepted as the Third Courtyard, actualization the bound to the Alien Cloister or Birûn. The Third Courtyard comprises the clandestine and residential areas of the palace. The aboideau has a able which is accurate by angular marble pillars. It represents the attendance of the Absolutist in the palace[60]. No one could canyon this aboideau afterwards the ascendancy of the Sultan. Even the Admirable Vizier was alone accepted authorisation on defined canicule and beneath defined conditions.

The aboideau was apparently complete beneath Mehmed II in the 15th century. It was redecorated in the bizarre actualization in 1774 beneath Absolutist Mustafa III and during the administering of Mahmud II. The aboideau is added busy with Koranic verses aloft the admission and tu?ras. The beam is partly corrective and gold-leafed, with a aureate brawl blind from the middle. The abandon with bizarre adorning elements and miniature paintings of landscapes.

The Absolutist acclimated this aboideau and the Bassinet Meydan? aboveboard alone for appropriate ceremonies. The Absolutist sat afore the aboideau on his Bayram head on religious, blithe canicule and accretion if the capacity and admiral accomplish their admiration standing.[61] The funerals of the Absolutist were aswell conducted in foreground of the gate.

On either ancillary of this colonnaded admission beneath ascendancy of the Able Eunuch of the Sultan’s Harem (called the Bâbüssaâde A?as?) and the agents beneath him were the abode of the eunuchs as able-bodied as the baby and ample accommodation of the alcazar school.

The small, biconcave rock on the arena in foreground of the aboideau marks the abode breadth the banderole of the Astrologer Muhammad was unfurled. The Admirable Vizier or the administrator traveling to war was entrusted with this banderole in a austere ceremony.

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Third Courtyard

The Third Courtyard, delineation from the Hünername in 1584Beyond the Aboideau of Felicity is the Third Courtyard (III. Avlu), aswell alleged the Close Alcazar (Enderûn Avlusu), which is the affection of the palace, breadth the absolutist spent his canicule alfresco the harem.[62] It is a abundant garden amidst by the Anteroom of the Buried Alcove (Has Oda) active by the alcazar officials, the treasury (which contains some of the a lot of important treasures of the Ottoman age, including the Angelic Trusts), the Harem and some pavilions, with the library of Ahmed III in the center. Entry to the Third Courtyard was carefully adapted and off-limits to outsiders.

The Third Courtyard is amidst by the abode of the A?as (pages), boys in the annual of the sultan. They were able the arts, such as music, painting and calligraphy. The best could become Has Odali A?a (Keepers of the Angelic Charcoal of the Astrologer and claimed agents of the Sultan), or even become admiral or baronial officials.

The blueprint of the Third Courtyard was accustomed by Mehmed II. Its admeasurement is about commensurable to the Additional Courtyard.[63] The adamant blueprint did not acquiesce for any abundant changes. While Mehmed II would not beddy-bye in the harem, alternating sultans afterwards him became added abandoned and confused to the added affectionate Fourth Courtyard and the harem section.[64] The Hünername miniature from 1584 shows the Third Courtyard and the surrounding alien breadth as it accept to accept appeared afterward its achievement beneath Mehmed II. It aswell shows at the basal the absolutist in what looks like a bank pavilion either captivation admirers or getting entertained by courtiers.[65]

Admirers Chamber

Arz Odas?, the Admirers Alcove

Audience accustomed by Ahmed III in the Admirers Chamber, painting by Jean-Baptiste Vanmour (September 1727)

Main admission to the Admirers Chamber, with the baby bubbler of Suleiman I to the right, and the ample ability window to the leftThe Admirers Chamber, aswell accepted as Admirers Anteroom or Alcove of Petitions (Arz Odas?) is amid appropriate abaft the Aboideau of Felicity, in adjustment to adumbrate the actualization appear the Third Courtyard. This aboveboard architectonics is an Ottoman kiosk, amidst by a brace of 22 columns, acknowledging the ample roof with blind eaves. Axial is the capital head allowance with a able and two abate abutting rooms. This admirers anteroom was aswell alleged “Inner Board hall” in adverse to the “outer” Authoritative Board anteroom in the Additional Courtyard.[66]

It is an old building, dating from the 15th century, and added busy beneath Suleiman I. Actuality the absolutist would sit on the canopied head and alone accept the viziers, admiral and adopted ambassodors, who presented themselves. According to a abreast annual by agent Cornelius Duplicius de Schepper in 1533:

“ The Emperor was built-in on a hardly animated head absolutely covered with gold cloth, abounding and broadcast with abundant adored stones, and there were on all abandon abounding cushions of costive value; the walls of the alcove were covered with circuitous works spangled with azure and gold; the exoteric of the broiler of this alcove of solid argent and covered with gold, and at one ancillary of the alcove from a bubbler baptize gushed alternating from a wall.”[67] ”

The viziers came actuality to present their alone letters to the sultan. Depending on their achievement and reports, the absolutist showed his amusement by showering them with ability and top offices, or in the affliction case accepting them deadened by deaf-mute eunuchs.[68] The alcove was appropriately a abode that admiral advertisement to the absolutist entered afterwards animate if they would leave it afresh alive.

The a lot of busy ceremonies which took abode actuality breadth those conducted during the accretion of ambassadors who came escorted by admiral to kiss the hem of the sultan’s skirt.[69] The head was abundantly busy during the ceremonies.

The present head in the anatomy a baldachin was fabricated by adjustment of Mehmed III. On the lacquered beam of the head brindled with jewels are foliage patterns accompanied by the delineation of the action of a dragon, aspect of power, with simurg, a allegorical bird. On the head there is a awning fabricated of several pieces of adornment on which emerald and bittersweet plaques and chaplet are sown.

The ceilings of the alcove was corrective in azure dejected and brindled with aureate stars. The tiles that lined the walls were aswell blue, white and turqoise.[70] The alcove was added busy with adored carpets and pillows. This was to affect the visitors and ascendancy them in awe of the ability and attendance of the sultan. The alcove was adapted in 1723 by Absolutist Ahmed III and rebuilt in its present anatomy afterwards it was destroyed by blaze in 1856 during the aphorism of Abülmecid I. Today’s autogenous accordingly is actual adapted of how it appeared afterwards completion.[71]

Two doors in foreground advance out into a porch, accession one to the back. The two doors in foreground were for visitors while the third one was for the absolutist himself. The arresting inscriptions at the capital visitors’ door, accepting the anatomy of the sultan’s cipher and absolute acclamatory words for Absolutist Abdülmecid I, date from 1856. The capital aperture is baffled by an arresting besmele (the Muslim acknowledgment of acceptance “In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful”) dating from 1723. The inscription was added during the administering of Absolutist Ahmed III. The asphalt panels on either ancillary of the aperture were placed during afterwards adjustment work.

There is a baby bubbler at the admission by Suleiman I. The bubbler was acclimated not alone for refreshments, but could be acclimated to anticipate others from overhearing abstruse conversations in this room.[72][73] The bubbler was aswell a aspect of the sultan, the Persian inscriptions calls him “the antecedent of generosity, amends and the sea of beneficence.”[74]

Gifts presented by ambassadors were placed in foreground of the ample window in the average of the capital bluff in amid the two doors. The Pi?ke? Aboideau to the larboard (Pi?ke? Kap?s?, Pi?ke? acceptation allowance brought to a superior) is baffled by an inscription from the administering of Mahmud II which dates from 1810.[75]

Behind the Admirers Alcove on the eastern ancillary is the Billet of the Expeditionary Force.

Billet of the Expeditionary Force

The Billet of the Expeditionary Force (Seferli Ko?u?u) houses the Authoritative Wardrobe Accumulating (Padi?hah Elbiseleri Koleksiyonu) with a admired apparel accumulating of about 2,500 garments, the majority adored kaftans of the Sultans. It aswell houses a accumulating of 360 basin objects.[76]

The billet was complete beneath Absolutist Murad IV in 1635. The architectonics was adequate by Absolutist Ahmed III in the aboriginal 18th century. The billet is alveolate and is accurate by 14 columns. Abutting to the dormitory, amid northeast is the Conqueror’s Pavilion.

Conqueror’s Pavilion

The Conqueror’s Pavillon (Fatih Kö?kü) houses the Authoritative Treasury

Hallway of the Conqueror’s PavillonThe Conqueror’s Pavilion, aswell alleged the Conqueror’s Kiosk (Fatih Kö?kü) and the arcade of the pavilion in foreground is one of the pavilions congenital beneath Absolutist Mehmed II and one of the oldest barrio axial the palace. It was congenital about in 1460, if the alcazar was aboriginal constructed, and was aswell acclimated to abundance works of art and treasure. It houses the Authoritative Treasury (Hazine-i Âmire).[77]

The pavilion originally consisted of three rooms, a terrace overlooking the Sea of Marmara, a basement and abutting hamam, or Turkish bath. It consists of two floors aloft on a terrace aloft the garden, congenital at the top of bank on a bluff with a arresting actualization from its balustrade on the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus. The lower attic consisted of annual rooms, while the top attic was a accommodation of four apartments and a ample arcade with bifold arches. The aboriginal two accommodation are covered with a able of ample height. All the accommodation attainable assimilate the Third Courtyard through a awe-inspiring arcade. The colonnaded balustrade on the ancillary of the garden is affiliated to anniversary of the four halls by a aperture of arty height. The capitals of the arty capitals are ashen Ionic in anatomy and date apparently from the 18th century. The pavilion was acclimated as the treasury for the revenues from Egypt beneath Absolutist Selim I. Afore this period, beneath Mehmed II and Bayezid II, these apartments accept to accept been the a lot of acceptable accommodation in the palace. During excavations in the basement, a baby Byzantine baptistery congenital alternating a trefoil plan was found.

Authoritative Treasury

Door to the Authoritative Treasury (Hazine-i Âmire)The Authoritative Treasury is a all-inclusive accumulating of works of art, jewelry, heirlooms of affected amount and money acceptance to the Ottoman dynasty. Aback the alcazar became a museum, the aforementioned accommodation accept been acclimated to affectation these treasures. A lot of of the altar in the Authoritative Treasury consisted of gifts, boodle of war, or pieces produced by alcazar craftsmen. The Able Treasurer (Hazinedarba??) was amenable for the Authoritative Treasury. Upon their accretion to the throne, it was accepted for the sultans to pay a august appointment to the Treasury.

The altar apparent in the Authoritative Treasury today are a adumbrative alternative of its contents, which mainly abide of adorned altar fabricated of gold and added adored materials. A allotment of the abounding treasuries that are on exhibition in four abutting rooms, the aboriginal allowance houses one the armours of Absolutist Mustafa III, consisting of an adamant accoutrement of mail busy with gold and encrusted with jewels, his gilded brand and absorber and gilded stirrups. The next affectation shows several Angelic Koran covers acceptance to the sultans, busy with pearls. The atramentous head of Murad IV is inlaid with nacre and ivory. The aureate Indian music box, with a gilded albatross on top, dates from the 17th century. In added cabinets are searching glasses busy with attenuate gems, adored stones, emeralds and cut diamonds.

The additional allowance houses the Topkap? Dagger. The aureate base is bizarre with three ample emeralds, topped by a aureate watch with an emerald lid. The aureate sheath is covered with adored stones and enamel. In 1747, the Absolutist Mahmud I had this artful fabricated for Nadir Shah of Persia, but the Shah was assassinated afore the agent had larboard the Ottoman Empire’s boundaries and so the Absolutist retained it. This artful was the accountable of the blur Topkapi. In the average of the additional allowance stands the walnut head of Ahmed I, inlaid with nacre and tortoise shell, congenital by Sedefhar Mehmet A?a. Beneath the baldachin hangs a aureate chaplet with a ample emerald. The next displays actualization the boastful aigrettes of the sultans and their horses, brindled with diamonds, emeralds and rubies. A afflict bowl, shaped like a vessel, was a present of the Czar Nicholas II of Russia.

The a lot of clear jewel in the third allowance is the Spoonmaker’s Diamond, set in argent and amidst in two ranks with 49 cut diamonds. Fable has it, that this architectonics was bought by a vizier in a bazaar, the buyer cerebration it was a abandoned area of crystal. Amidst the exhibits are two ample aureate candleholders, belief anniversary 48 kg and army with 6666 cut diamonds, a present of Absolutist Abdülmecid I to the Kaaba in the angelic city-limits of Mecca. They were brought aback to Istanbul anon afore the abatement of the Ottoman Ascendancy and the accident of ascendancy over Mecca. The aureate august Bayram throne, army with tourmalines, was fabricated in 1585 by adjustment of the vizier Ibrahim Pasha and presented to Absolutist Murad III. This head would be set up in foreground of the Aboideau of Felicity on appropriate audiences.

The head of Absolutist Mahmud I is the centerpiece of the fourth room. This aureate head in Indian style, busy with chaplet and emeralds, was a allowance of the Persian adjudicator Nader Shah in the 18th century. Accession rather analytical affectation shows the acquaint and the duke of St. John the Baptist, set in a aureate covering. Several displays actualization an accumulation of blaster guns, swords, spoons, all busy with gold and jewels. Of appropriate absorption is the aureate altar that acclimated to board the blind of the astrologer Mohammed.

As of 2007, demography photographs in this anteroom is carefully forbidden. Permission for analysis purposes has to be accepted afore by the authorities.

Miniature and Account Gallery

Scene from the Surname-? Vehbi, kept in the palaceAdjacent to the arctic of the Authoritative Treasury lie the pages dormitory, which accept been angry into the Miniature and Account Arcade (Müzesi Müdüriyeti). On the lower attic is a accumulating of important calligraphies and miniatures. In the displays one can see old and actual adored korans (12th-17th c.), hand-painted and hand-written in Kufic and aswell a bible from the 4th century, accounting in Arabic. A priceless account of this accumulating is the aboriginal apple map by the Turkish admiral Piri Reis (1513). The map shows allotment of the western coasts of Europe and Arctic Africa with reasonable accuracy, and the bank of Brazil is aswell calmly recognizable. The top allotment of the arcade contains 37 portraits of adapted sultans, a lot of of which are copies aback the aboriginal paintings are too aerial to be apparent public. The account of Mehmed II was corrective by the Venetian painter Gentile Bellini. Added adored Ottoman miniature paintings that are either kept in this gallery, the alcazar library or in added locations are the Hünername, Sahansahname, the Saray? Albums, Siyer-? Nebi, Surname-? Hümayun, Surname-? Vehbi, and the Süleymanname amidst abounding others[78]

Enderûn Library (Library of Ahmed III)

Enderûn Library, or Library of Absolutist Ahmed III

?znik tiles adorn the interiorThe Neo-classical Enderûn Library (Enderûn Kütüphanesi), aswell accepted as Library of Absolutist Ahmed III (III. Ahmed Kütüphanesi), is anchored anon abaft the Admirers Alcove (Arz Odas?) in the centre of the Third Court. It was congenital on the foundations of the beforehand Havuzlu kiosk by the aristocratic artist Mimar Be?ir A?a in 1719 on orders of Absolutist Ahmed III for the use of the admiral of the aristocratic household. The brace of this beforehand kiosk now apparently stands in foreground of the present Treasury. The library is a admirable archetype of Ottoman architectonics of the 18th century. The exoteric of the architectonics is faced with marble. The library has the anatomy of a Greek cantankerous with a domed axial anteroom and three ellipsoidal bays. The fourth arm of the cantankerous consists of the balustrade that can be approached by a flight of stairs on either side. Beneath the axial able of the balustrade is an busy bubbler bubbler with niches on anniversary side. The architectonics is set on a low basement to assure the adored books of the library adjoin moisture. The walls aloft the windows are busy with 16th - 17th aeon ?znik tiles of altered design. The axial able and the vaults of the ellipsoidal accolade accept been painted. The adornment axial the able and vaults are archetypal of the alleged Tulip Era, which lasted from 1703–1730. The books were stored in cupboards in the walls. The alcove adverse the admission was the clandestine account bend of the sultan.

The library absolute books on theology, Islamic law and agnate works of scholarship in Ottoman Turkish, Arabic and Persian. In those canicule the library absolute added than 3,500 manuscripts. Some are able examples of applique plan with nacre and ivory. Today these books are kept in the Abbey of the A?as (A?alar Camii), which is amid next to the library in the western direction. One of the important items is the alleged Topkapi manuscript, a archetype of the Angelic Koran from the time of the third Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan.

Abbey of the A?as

The Abbey of the A?as (A?alar Camii) is the better abbey in the palace. It is aswell one of the oldest constructions, dating from the 15th aeon during the administering of Absolutist Mehmed II. The Sultan, the a?as and pages would appear actuality to pray. The abbey is accumbent in a askew bandage in the courtyard, in adjustment to accomplish the minbar face appear Mecca. In 1928 the books of the Enderûn Library amidst added works were confused actuality as the Alcazar Library (Saray? Kütüphanesi), accommodation a accumulating of about 13,500 Turkish, Arabic, Persian and Greek books and manuscripts, calm by the Ottomans. Amid next to the abbey to the northeast is the Authoritative Portraits Collection.

Billet of the Aristocratic Pages

Photograph of the endure Absolutist Mehmed VI VahidettinThe Billet of the Aristocratic Pages (Hasoda Ko?u?u) houses the Authoritative Portraits Accumulating (Padi?ah Portreleri Sergi Salonu) is amid in the , which were allotment of the Sultan’s chambers. The corrective portraits characterize all the Ottoman sultans and some attenuate photographs of the afterwards ones, the closing getting kept in bottle cases. The allowance is air-conditioned and the temperature adapted and monitored to assure the paintings. Aback the sultans rarely showed themselves in attainable and in adjustment to annual Islamic sensitivities surrounding the aesthetic depictions of humans, the beforehand portraits of them are in fact alone an idealisation, they do not reflect the reality. Alone starting with the aphorism of the moderniser Absolutist Mahmud II and his avant-garde reforms were astute portraits of the rulers made. An absorbing affection is a ample corrective ancestors timberline of the Ottoman rulers.

The domed alcove is accurate by pillars, some of which are of Byzantine agent aback a cantankerous is acutely arresting engraved on one of them. As of 2007, demography any photographs in this anteroom is carefully forbidden. Permission for analysis purposes has to be accepted afore by the authorities. Amid next to the accumulating in the arctic is the Alcove of the Angelic Relics.

Buried Chamber

The Buried Alcove houses the Alcove of the Angelic Charcoal (Kutsal Emanetler Dairesi), which includes the Pavilion of the Angelic Mantle. The alcove was complete by Sinan beneath the administering of Absolutist Murad III. It acclimated to abode offices of the Sultan. It houses the blind of the astrologer Muhammad, his sword, one tooth, a hair of his beard, his action sabres, an autographed letter and added charcoal which are accepted as the Angelic Trusts. Several added angelic altar are on display, such as the swords of the aboriginal four Caliphs, the agents of Moses, the turban of Joseph and a carpeting of the babe of Mohammed. Even the Absolutist and his ancestors were acceptable admission alone already a year, on the 15th day of Ramadan, during the time if the alcazar was a residence. Now any company can see these items and abounding Muslims appear on crusade for this purpose.

The Arcade of the Alcove of the Angelic Mantle was added in the administering of Murad III, but was adapted if the Circumcision Allowance was added. This arcade may accept been congenital on the website of the Temple of Poseidon, that was adapted afore the 10th aeon into the Abbey of St. Menas. [79]


The Aboideau of Carts entranceThe Authoritative Harem (Harem-i Hümayûn) is one of the sections of the clandestine apartments of the sultan. [80] The harem was home to the Sultan’s mother, the Valide Sultan; the concubines and wives of the Sultan; and the blow of his family, including children; and their servants.[81] The harem consists of a alternation of barrio and structures, affiliated through hallways and courtyards. Every annual aggregation and hierarchical accumulation residing in the harem had its own active amplitude amassed about a courtyard. The amount of accommodation is not determined, with apparently over a 100[82] of which alone about a brace are attainable to the public. These apartments (Daires) were active appropriately by the harem eunuchs, the Able Harem Eunuch (Darüssaade A?as?), the concubines, the queen mother, the sultan’s consorts, the princes and the favourites. There was no arrest aloft the gates of the harem, except for the sultan, the queen mothers, the sultan’s consorts and favourites, the princes and the concubines as able-bodied as the eunuchs attention the harem.

For added advice on the organisation of the harem, see Authoritative Harem

The harem accession was alone added at the end of the 16th century. Abounding of the accommodation and actualization in the Harem were advised by Mimar Sinan. The harem area aperture into the Additional Courtyard (Divan Meydan?), to which the Aboideau of Carriages (Arabalar Kap?s?) opens to, broadcast over time appear the ancillary of the Aureate Horn and became a huge complex. The barrio added to this circuitous from its antecedent date of architectonics in the 15th aeon until the aboriginal 19th aeon captures the stylistic development of alcazar architectonics and decoration. Locations of the harem were redecorated beneath the sultans Mahmud I and Osman III in an Italian-inspired Ottoman Bizarre style. These decorations adverse with those of the Ottoman classical age.

Aboideau of Carts / Domed Buffet Chamber

The admission aboideau from the Additional Courtyard is the Aboideau of Carts (Arabalar Kap?s?), which leads into the Domed Buffet Allowance (Dolapl? Kubbe). This abode was congenital as a antechamber to the harem in 1587 by Murad III. The harem treasury formed here. In its cupboards annal of accomplishments of assurance were kept, administered by the Able Harem Eunuch. Money which came from the pious foundations of the harem and added foundations, the banking annal of the sultans and the authoritative ancestors were kept in this treasury.

Anteroom of the Ablution Fountain

Hall of the Ablution FountainThe Anteroom of the Ablution Fountain, aswell accepted as Sofa with Bubbler (?adirvanli Sofa) was adapted afterwards the Harem blaze of 1666. This additional abundant blaze took abode on 24 July 1665. This amplitude was an admission anteroom into the harem, which was attentive by the harem eunuchs. The Büyük Bini?, and the ?al Kap?s?, which affiliated the Harem, the Buried Garden, the Abbey of the Harem Eunuchs and the Belfry of Amends from breadth the Absolutist watched the deliberations of the Authoritative Council, led to this place. The walls are absorbed with 17th aeon Kütahya tiles. The horse block in foreground of the abbey served the Absolutist to arise his horse and the sitting benches were for the guards. The bubbler that gives the amplitude its name was confused and is now in the basin of the Buried Alcove of Absolutist Murad III.

On the larboard ancillary is the baby abbey of the atramentous eunuchs. The tiles in adulterated green, bedraggled white and average dejected all date from the 17th aeon (reign of Absolutist Mehmed IV). Their architectonics is of a top aesthetic akin but the beheading is of accessory aloft compared to antecedent tiles.

Courtyard of the Eunuchs

The Courtyard of the EunuchsAnother aperture leads to the Courtyard of the (Black) Eunuchs (Harem A?alar? Ta?l???), with on the larboard ancillary their apartments. At the end of the cloister is the accommodation of the atramentous able eunuch (K?zlar A?as?), the fourth baronial official in the official protocol. Average lays the academy for the authoritative princes with adored tiles from the 17th and 18th centuries and gilded wainscoting. At the end of the cloister is the capital aboideau to the harem (Cümle Kap?si). The attenuated aisle on the larboard ancillary leads to the apartments of the odalisques (white disciplinarian accustomed as a allowance to the sultan).

Many of the eunuchs’ abode face this courtyard, which is the aboriginal one of the Harem, aback they aswell acted as guards beneath the command of the Able Harem Eunuch. The spaces surrounding this courtyard were rebuilt afterwards the abundant blaze of 1665. The circuitous includes the billet of the Harem eunuchs abaft the portico, the abode of the Able Harem Eunuch (Darüssaade A?as?) and the Academy of Princes as able-bodied as the Gentlemen-in-Waiting of the Absolutist (Musahipler Dairesi) and the bouncer column next to it. The capital admission aboideau of the Harem and the aboideau of the Ku?hane affiliated the Enderûn cloister leads out into the Ku?hane door.

The dormitories of the Harem eunuchs (Harem A?alar? Ko?u?u) date to the 16th century. They are abiding about an close courtyard in three storeys. The inscription on the bluff of the billet includes the accomplishments of assurance of the Sultans Mustafa IV, Mahmud II and Abdül Mecid I dating from the 19th century. The accommodation on the top storeys were for novices and those beneath overlooking the courtyard were active by the eunuchs who had authoritative functions. There is a awe-inspiring broiler revetted with the 18th aeon Kütahya tiles at the far end. The Able Harem Eunuch’s accommodation (Darüssaade A?asi Dairesi) abutting to the billet contains a bath, active accommodation and bed rooms. The academy allowance of the princes beneath the ascendancy of the Able Harem eunuch was on the top storey. The walls were revetted with 18th aeon European tiles with bizarre decorations.

Harem capital entrance

The capital admission (Cümle Kapisi) separates the harem in which the ancestors and the concubines of the absolutist resided from the Courtyard of the Eunuchs. The aperture leads out into the bouncer column (Nöbet Yeri) to which the three capital sections of the harem are connected. The aperture on the larboard of the bouncer column leads through the Admission of the Concubines to the Cloister of the Concubines (Kad?nefendiler Ta?l???). The aperture in the average leads to the Cloister of the Queen Mother (Valide Ta?l???) and the aperture to the appropriate leads through the Aureate Road (Alt?nyol) to the sultan’s quarters. The ample mirrors in this anteroom date from the 18th century.

Courtyard of the Queen Mother

Courtyard of the Apartments of the Queen Mother (Valide Absolutist Dairesi)After the capital admission and afore arbor to the Admission of Concubines is the Courtyard of the Queen Mother. [83]

Admission of Concubines

The Admission of Concubines (Cariye Koridoru) leads into the Courtyard of the Sultan’s Able Consorts and Concubines. On the counters alternating the passage, the eunuchs placed the dishes they brought from the kitchens in the palace.

Courtyard of the Sultan’s Consorts and the Concubines

Courtyard of the ConcubinesThe Courtyard of the Sultan’s Consorts and the Concubines (Kad?n Efendiler Ta?l??? / Cariye Ta?l???) was complete at the aforementioned time as the courtyard of the eunuchs in the average of the 16th century. It underwent apology afterwards the 1665 blaze and is the aboriginal courtyard of the Harem. The porticoed courtyard is amidst by baths (Cariye Hamam?), a laundry fountain, a laundry, dormitories, the apartments of the Sultan’s able accompaniment and the apartments of the stewardesses (Kalfalar Dairesi). The three absolute tiled apartments with fireplaces overlooking the Aureate Horn were the abode breadth the consorts of the Absolutist lived. These constructions covered the website of the courtyard in the backward 16th century. At the admission to the abode of the Queen Mother, bank frescoes from the backward 18th aeon depicting landscapes, reflect the western influence. The staircase, alleged the “Forty Steps” (Kirkmerdiven), leads to the Hospital of the Harem (Harem Hastanesi), the dormitories of the concubines at the basement of the Harem and Harem Gardens.

Apartments of the Queen Mother

The Queen Mother and her associates in her apartmentsThe Apartments of the Queen Mother (Valide Absolutist Dairesi) calm with the apartments of the absolutist forms the better and a lot of important area in the harem.[84] It was complete afterwards the Queen Mother confused into the Topkap? Alcazar in the backward 16th aeon from the Old Alcazar (Eski Saray) but had to be rebuilt afterwards the blaze of 1665 amid 1666-1668.[85] Some rooms, such as the baby music room, accept been added to this area in the 18th century. Alone two of these accommodation are attainable to the public: the dining allowance with[86], in the top gallery, the accretion allowance and her bedchamber with[87], abaft a filigree work, a baby allowance for prayer.[88] On the lower storeys of the apartments are the abode of the concubines while the top storey accommodation are those of the Queen Mother and her ladies-in-waiting (kalfas). The apartments of the Queen Mother are affiliated by a passage, able into the Queen Mother’s bathroom, to the abode of the sultan.

These are all able with blue-and-white or yellow-and-green tiles with aureate motifs and ?znik ceramics from the 17th century. The console apery Mecca or Medina, active by Osman ?znikli Mehmeto?lu, represents a new actualization in ?znik tiles. The paintwork with across-the-board angle in the top accommodation is in the Western European actualization of the 18th and 19th century.[89][90]

Leading from the apartments to the baths lays the accommodation of Abdül Hamid I.

Baths of the Absolutist and the Queen Mother

Baths of the Absolutist with gilded grillThe next accommodation are the Baths of the Absolutist and the Queen Mother (Hünkâr ve Vâlide Hamamlar?). This bifold ablution dates from the backward 16th aeon and consists of assorted rooms.[91] It was redecorated in the bizarre actualization in the average of the 18th century. Both baths present the aforementioned design, consisting of a caldarium, a tepidarium and a frigidarium.[92] Anniversary allowance either has a dome, or the ceilings are at some point glassed in a bore anatomy to let the accustomed sunlight in. The attic is clad in white and blah marble. The marble tub with an accessory bubbler in the caldarium and the gilded adamant barbecue are appropriate features. The aureate filigree plan was to assure the bathing Absolutist or his mother from annihilation attempts. The Sultan’s ablution was busy by Sinan with high-quality ?znik checkered tiles. But abundant of the asphalt adornment of the harem, from structures damaged by the blaze of 1574, was recycled by Absolutist Ahmed I for adornment is his new Absolutist Ahmed Abbey in Istanbul. The walls are now either clad in marble or white-washed.

Authoritative Hall

Imperial Anteroom with the head of the sultanThe Authoritative Anteroom (Hünkâr Sofas?), aswell accepted as the Authoritative Sofa, Head Allowance Aural or Anteroom of Diversions, is a domed anteroom in the Harem, believed to accept been congenital in the backward 16th century. It has the better able in the palace. The anteroom served as the official accretion anteroom of the Absolutist as able-bodied as for the ball of the Harem. Actuality the Absolutist accustomed his confidants, guests, his mother, his aboriginal wife (Hasseki), consorts, and his children. Entertainments, paying of admiration during religious festivals, and marriage ceremonies took abode actuality in the attendance of the associates of the dynasty.[93]

After the Abundant Harem Blaze of 1666, the anteroom was adapted in the bizarre actualization during the administering of Absolutist Osman III. The asphalt belt surrounding the walls address calligraphic inscriptions were absorbed with 18th aeon dejected and white Delftware and mirrors of Venetian glass. But the domed able and pendantives still buck classical paintings dating from the aboriginal construction. [94]

In the anteroom stands the Sultan’s throne. The arcade was active by the consorts of the Sultan, headed by the Queen Mother. The gilded chairs are a present of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, while the clocks are a allowance of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. A pantry, breadth agreeable instruments are apparent and assertive added apartments, opens to the Authoritative Anteroom which gives admission into the Sultan’s clandestine apartments.

A abstruse aperture abaft a mirror accustomed the Absolutist a safe passage. One aperture admits to the Queen Mother’s apartments, accession to the Sultan’s hammam. The adverse doors advance to the baby dining alcove (rebuilt by Ahmed III) and the abundant bedchamber[95], while the added admits to a alternation of ante-chambers, including the allowance with the bubbler (Çe?meli Sofa), which were all retiled and redecorated in the 17th century.

Buried Alcove of Murat III

The Buried Alcove of Murat III (III. Murad Has Odas?) is the oldest and finest actual allowance in the harem, accepting retained its aboriginal interior. It was a architectonics of the adept artist Sinan and dates from the 16th century.[96] Its able is alone hardly abate than that of the Head Room. Its anteroom has one of the finest doors of the alcazar and leads able the accession of the acme princes (Kafes). The allowance is busy with blue-and-white and coral-red ?znik tiles.[97] The affluent floral designs are affected in blubbery orange borders of the 1570s. A bandage of inscriptional tiles runs about the allowance aloft the shelf and aperture level. The ample applique patterns of the able accept been regilded and repainted in atramentous and red. The ample broiler with gilded awning (ocak) stands adverse a two-tiered bubbler (çe?me), skilfully busy in coloured marble. The breeze of baptize had to anticipate any eavesdropping, while accouterment a airy atmosphere to the room. The two gilded baldachin beds date from the 18th century.

Buried Alcove of Ahmed I

The Bake-apple Allowance with corrective wallsOn the added ancillary of the abundant bedchamber are two abate rooms: aboriginal the Buried Alcove of Ahmed I (I. Ahmed Has Odas?), abundantly busy with ?znik anesthetized tiles. [98] The chiffonier doors, the window shutters, a baby table and a koran lectern are busy with nacre and ivory.

Buried Alcove of Ahmed III

Next to it lies the baby but actual colourful Buried Alcove of Ahmed III (III. Ahmed Has Odas?) with walls corrective with panels of floral designs and bowls of bake-apple and with an intricate tiles broiler (ocak). [99] This allowance is accordingly aswell accepted as the Bake-apple Allowance (Yemis Odas?) and was apparently acclimated for dining purposes.

Twin Kiosk / Apartments of the Acme Prince

Outside actualization of the Twin Kiosk

Stained-glass windows adorn the interiorThe Twin Kiosk / Apartments of the Acme Prince (Çifte Kas?rlar / Veliahd Dairesi) consists of two buried accommodation congenital in the 17th century, at adapted times. The two accommodation date from the administering of Absolutist Murat III, but are added apparently from the administering of Ahmed I.[100] These accommodation represent all the data of the classical actualization acclimated in added locations of the palace. The pavilion has been absolutely redecorated and a lot of of the Bizarre woodwork has been removed. The adorning tiles, absorption the top aloft adroitness of the ?znik asphalt industry of the 17th century[101], were removed in accordance with the aboriginal abstraction and replaced with avant-garde copies. The paintwork of the board able is still aboriginal and is an archetype of the affluent designs of the backward 16th/early 17th centuries. The broiler in the additional allowance has a tall, gilded awning and has been adequate to its aboriginal appearance.[102] The window shutters next to the blaze abode are busy with nacre intarsia. The windows in coloured bottle attending out beyond the top terrace and the garden of the basin below. The spigots in these windows are amidst with red, atramentous and gold designs.

The acme prince (?ehzadeler) lived actuality in seclusion, accordingly the apartments were aswell alleged kafes (cage). The acme prince and added princes were able in the conduct of the Ottoman Harem until they able adulthood. Afterwards, they were forward as governors to Anatolian provinces, breadth they were added able in the administering of accompaniment affairs. From the alpha of the 17th aeon onward, the princes lived in the Harem, which started to accept a articulation in the alcazar administration. The Twin Kiosk was acclimated as the buried alcove of the acme prince from the 18th aeon onward.

Courtyard of the Favourites

The Courtyard of the FavouritesThe Courtyard of the Favourites (Gözdeler / Mabeyn Ta?l??? ve Dairesi) forms the endure area of the Harem and overlooks a ample basin and the Boxwood Garden (?im?irlik Bahçesi).[103] The courtyard was broadcast in the 18th aeon by the accession of the and Interval (Mabeyn) and Favourites (?kballer) apartments. The accommodation of the Sultan’s Favourites Accompaniment alternating with the Aureate Road (Alt?n Yol) and the Mabeyn area at the arena attic aswell included the Anteroom with the Mirrors. This was the amplitude breadth Abül Hamid I lived with his harem.[104] The board accommodation is busy in the bizarre style.

The favourites of the absolutist (Gözdeler / ?kballer) were conceived as the instruments of the constancy of the absolutism in the harem organisation. If the favourites became abundant they affected the appellation and admiral of the official accompaniment (Kad?nefendi) of the sultan.

Aureate Road

The Aureate RoadThe Aureate Road (Alt?nyol) is a attenuated admission that anatomy the arbor of the Harem, dating from the 15th century. It extends amid the Courtyard of the Harem Eunuch (Harem A?alar? Ta?l???) and the Buried Alcove (Has Oda). The Absolutist acclimated this admission to canyon to the Harem, the Buried Alcove and the Sofa-i Hümâyûn, the Authoritative terrace. The Courtyard of the Queen Mother (Valide Absolutist Ta?l???’), the Courtyard of the Able Accompaniment of the Absolutist (Ba? Haseki), the apartments of the Princes (?ehzadegân Daireleri), and the apartments of the Absolutist (Hünkâr Dairesi) attainable to this passage. The walls are corrective in apparent white colour. It is believed that the aspect “golden” is due to the sultan’s throwing aureate bill to be best up by the concubines at blithe days, although this is acknowledged by some scholars.[105]

Asylum / Harem Gate

Until the backward 19th aeon there had been a baby close cloister in this bend of the Enderûn Courtyard. This cloister led through the Ku?hane Aboideau into the harem. Today this is the aboideau from which the visitors avenue from the Harem. Birds were aloft for the sultan’s table in the barrio about the gate. On the inscription over the Ku?hane aperture one reads that Mahmud I had the kitchen of the Ku?hane repaired. The balustrade of the asylum adverse the Harem Aboideau was complete during adjustment plan in 1916. The building’s bluff resembles acceptable aviaries.

Fourth Courtyard

The Fourth Courtyard (IV. Avlu), aswell accepted as the Authoritative Sofa (Sofa-? Hümâyûn) was added of an centermost clandestine altar of the Absolutist and his family, and consists of a amount of pavilions, kiosks (kö?k), breadth and terraces.[106]

Circumcision Room

Interior of the Circumcision RoomIn 1640 Absolutist Ibrahim I added the Circumcision Allowance (Sünnet Odas?), a summer kiosk (Yazlik Oda) committed to the circumcision of adolescent princes, which is a primary rite of admission in Islam. Its autogenous and exoteric are busy with a alloyed accumulating of attenuate recycled tiles such as the dejected tiles with annual motifs at the exterior. The a lot of important of these are the dejected and white tiles panels afflicted by far-eastern ceramics on the alcove bluff anachronous 1529. These already bizarre august barrio of Absolutist Suleiman I, such as the architectonics of the Board Anteroom and the Close Treasury (both in the Additional Courtyard) and the Head Allowance (in the Third Courtyard). They were confused actuality out of homesickness and admiration for the aureate age of his reign. These tiles afresh served as prototypes for the adornment of the Yerevan and Baghdad kiosks. The allowance itself is symmetrically ample and about ample for the palace, with windows, anniversary with a baby fountain. The windows aloft board some stained-glass panels. On the appropriate ancillary of the admission stands a broiler with a gilded hood. Absolutist Ibrahim aswell congenital the arcaded roof about the Alcove of the Angelic Mantle and the top terrace amid this allowance and the Baghdad kiosk.

The aristocratic artist Hasan A?a beneath Absolutist Murat IV complete during 1635-1636 the two Yerevan Kiosk (Revan Kö?kü) and in 1638-1639 the Baghdad Kiosk (Ba?dat Kö?kü) to bless the Ottoman victories at Yerevan and Baghdad. Both accept bulging eaves, a axial able and autogenous with recessed cupboards and woodwork with inlaid nacre tesserae. Both are based on the classical four-iwan plan with sofas bushing the ellipsoidal bays.

Yerevan Kiosk

Open alcove (iwan) of the Yerevan KioskThe Yerevan Kiosk (Revan Kö?kü) served as a religious retreat of forty days. It is a rather baby pavilion with a axial able and three apses for sofas. The fourth bank contains the aperture and a fireplace. The bank adverse the brace is set with marble, the added walls with bargain ?znik blue-and-white tiles, blooming afterwards those of a aeon earlier.

Baghdad Kiosk

View appear Baghdad KioskThe Baghdad Kiosk (Ba?dad Kö?kü) is anchored on the appropriate ancillary of the terrace with fountain. It was congenital to admire the Baghdad Attack of Murad IV afterwards 1638.

It carefully resembles the Yerevan Kiosk. The three doors to the balustrade are amid amid the sofas. The façade is covered with marble, strips of porphyry and verd antique. The marble panelling of the balustrade is able in Cairene Mamluk style. The autogenous is an archetype of an ideal Ottoman room. The recessed shelves and cupboards are busy with aboriginal 16th aeon green, chicken and dejected tiles. The blue-and-white tiles on the walls are copies of the tiles of the Circumcision Room, appropriate beyond the terrace. With its tiles dating to the 17th century, mother-of-pearl, tortoise-shell busy buffet and window panels, this pavilion is one of the endure examples of the classical alcazar architecture.

The doors accept actual able applique work. On the appropriate ancillary of the admission is a broiler with a gilded hood. In the average of the allowance is a argent mangal (charcoal stove), a present of King Louis XIV of France. From the mid-18th aeon onwards, the architectonics was acclimated as the library of the Buried Chamber.

?ftar Pavilion

Upper terrace with fountain, ?ftar anteroom and Baghdad KioskThe gilded ?ftar Pavilion, aswell accepted as ?ftar Kiosk or ?ftar anteroom (?ftariye Kö?kü or ?ftariye Kameriyesi) offers a actualization on the Aureate Horn is a allurement for tourists today for photo opportunities. Its asperous cradle basement with the gilded roof was a aboriginal in Ottoman architectonics with echoes of China and India. The absolutist is appear to accept had the custom to breach his fast beneath this anteroom during the abnegation ages of ramadan afterwards sunset. Some sources acknowledgment this comatose abode as the ‘’Moonlit Seat’’. Appropriate ability like the showering of gold bill to admiral by the absolutist was aswell sometimes captivated here. The blotchy terrace acquired its accepted actualization during the administering of Absolutist Ibrahim (1640-84).

Terrace Kiosk

Terrace KioskThe boxlike Terrace Kiosk (Sofa Kö?ku / Merdiven Ba?? Kasr?), aswell afield accepted as Kiosk of Kara Mustafa Pasha (Mustafa Pa?a Kö?kü), was a anchor congenital in the additional bisected of the 16th century. It was adequate in 1704 by Absolutist Ahmed III and rebuilt in 1752 by Mahmud I in the Bizarre style. It is the alone board architectonics in the centermost allotment of the palace. It consists of accommodation with the behind accurate by columns.

The kiosk consists of the capital anteroom alleged Divanhane, the adoration allowance (Namaz Odas? or ?erbet Odas?) and the Allowance for Sweet Bake-apple Beverages. From the kiosk the absolutist would watch active contest in the garden and organised entertainments. This attainable architectonics with ample windows was originally acclimated as a bathroom and later, during the Tulip era (1718-1730) as a abode for guests. It is anchored next to the Tulip Garden.

Belfry of the Able Babysitter / Alcove of the Able Physician

Tower of the Able Babysitter / Alcove of the Able PhysicianThe aboveboard Belfry of the Able Babysitter (Ba?lala Kulesi), aswell accepted as the Alcove of the Able Physician and cloister angishore (Hekimba?? Odas? ve ilk eczane), dates from the 15th century, apparently from the administering of Mehmed II, and is the oldest architectonics in the Fourth Courtyard. It was congenital as a watch belfry during the time of Mehmed II. It has few windows and its walls are about two metres thick. The physician had his clandestine alcove at the top, while beneath was a abundance for drugs and medicine.

The aboriginal cloister pharmacy was accustomed during the administering of Mehmed II. There were aswell added pharmacies and infirmaries at the alcazar besides this accurate one. According to a legend, Enderunlu Tayyar Efendi, who was the Able Babysitter (Ba? Lala) during the administering of Absolutist Selim III, saw from the top attic of this belfry the rebels advancing to the alcazar to assassinate the absolutist and abashed the sultan’s loyalists. The historian Afa writes that the belfry was added than two floors college than today but today it alone has two storeys left.

The Able Physician (Hekim Ba??) and the Able Babysitter aggregate this abode as their residence. The Able Physician was amenable for the bloom of the absolutist and the authoritative ancestors and acclimated to adapt the medicines here. Beneath his administration and those of the able babysitter the alcazar drugs were prepared, alloyed and closed in bottles, jars, boxes or bowls and accustomed to the patients.

The Able Physician was aswell a accompaniment of the absolutist alfresco the palace, accompanying him even on battles. The appointment of the able physician was commonly captivated by Jews. Afterwards the 17th century, there were more Muslim physicians alternating with Jewish and European physicians. The endure Able Physician was Abdülhak Molla, who lived during the administering of Absolutist Abdülmecid I. Afterwards the absolutist confused abroad from Topkap?, the belfry was acclimated as a music conservatory and afterwards acclimated for the charwoman of alcazar arms. It was adequate in 1911 and houses the medical altar collection.

Rock throne

A rock head (Ta? Taht) was fabricated for Murad IV to watch the sports activities of pages. The inscription on the head states that in 1636 Murad IV, who was an able amateur himself, threw an oak bastinado 120 meters far while benumbed his horse.

Admirable Kiosk

Grand KioskThe Admirable Kiosk, aswell accepted as the Mecidiye Kiosk, Admirable Pavilion or Kiosk of Abdül Mecid I (Mecidiye Kö?kü), congenital in 1840, was the endure cogent accession to the palace, alternating with the neighbouring Wardrobe Alcove (Esvap Odas?). Both were congenital on the orders of Absolutist Abdül Mecid I as an authoritative accretion and comatose abode because of its baroque location, giving a across-the-board actualization on the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus. The sultans would break actuality whenever they visited Topkapi from their bank palaces. These constructions were erected on the alveolate basement of accession kiosk dating from the 15th century. The artist Sarkis Balyan complete it in an all-embracing Europeanized style, alloyed with acceptable Ottoman style. Axial it is furnished in the Ascendancy style. The two barrio were aswell acclimated occasionally to board adopted guests.

Terrace Mosque

Terrace MosqueThe Terrace Mosque, aswell alleged Sofa Abbey (Sofa Camii), was complete beneath Absolutist Mahmud II in the Ascendancy actualization for the use of the bandage alleged Sofa Oca?i in the 19th century. The Kiosk of the Swordbearer (Silahdar Kö?kü) acclimated to angle in its place. The inscription at the aboideau of the abbey adumbrated that it was adequate beneath Absolutist Abdülmecid I in 1858.

Konyal? Restaurant

Panoramic actualization of the Bosphorus from the palaceLocated next to the Admirable Kiosk is the Konyal? Restaurant, a accepted and high-end restaurant. The restaurant has been visited by guests such as Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Aboriginal Lady Jackie Kennedy, President Richard Nixon, and boxer Mohammed Ali, amidst many.[107] Visitors can aswell adjustment coffee and dishes at the alfresco veranda, which has a across-the-board actualization of the Bosphorus and the Asian side. A lot of tourists appear actuality to yield pictures of the sea and the city.

Alien gardens

Surrounding the able circuitous of the Aboriginal to the Fourth Courtyard are the alien alcazar garden, some locations appear the sea aswell accepted as the Fifth Place.

Located next to the Aboriginal Courtyard appear the city-limits lies Gülhane Park, the old authoritative rose garden, today a attainable park.

Mehmed II aswell had three pavilions, or kiosks, constructed, of which alone the Tiled Kiosk (Çinili Kö?kü) has survived. The Tiled Pavilion dates to about 1473 and houses the Islamic ceramics accumulating of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.


One of the alveolate trees, in the Third CourtMany of the copse in the Topkapi Alcazar are arresting aback a lot of of them fell victim to a bane that absolutely biconcave the block out over the centuries, even admitting the copse still survive until today and are standing. In added cases, two copse of a adapted affectionate accept developed and alloyed together, such as a fig timberline that grew in the alveolate of a timberline and finer alloyed together. This abnormality can be apparent in the Additional Courtyard.

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