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Anitkabir

Anitkabir

Anitkabir (literally, “memorial tomb”) is the catacomb of Mustafa Kemal Atat├╝rk, the baton of Turkish War of Ability and the architect and aboriginal admiral of the Republic of Turkey. It is amid in Ankara and was advised by architects Professor Emin Onat and Assistant Professor Orhan Arda, who won the antagonism captivated by the Turkish Government in 1941 for a “monumental mausoleum” for Atat├╝rk out of a absolute of 49 all-embracing proposals.

The website is aswell the final comatose abode of ismet in├Ân├╝, the additional Admiral of Turkey, who was interred there afterwards he died in 1973. His tomb faces the Atat├╝rk Mausoleum, on the adverse ancillary of the August Ground.

Visitors

On 10 November 2007, 69th commemoration of Atat├╝rk’s death, 546,620 people, of whom 544,200 were Turkish nationals and 2,420 were foreigners, visited Anitkabir ambience an all time top almanac of circadian visitors. In the aboriginal 11 months of 2007, Anitkabir accept accustomed over 11 actor visitors, before the absolute amount of visitors for any accomplished year. In 2006, a absolute of 8,150,000 humans and in 2005, a absolute of 3,800,000 humans visited Anitkabir.

Architectural properties

Passageway about the august groundThe aeon of Turkish architectonics amid 1940 and 1950 has been classified by architectural historians as the Additional Civic Architectonics Movement. This aeon is characterized mostly by monumental, symmetrical, cut-stone clad buildings, with abounding accent accustomed to account and ability in construction. Anitkabir contains the aforementioned characteristics of this period, and is advised by abounding to be the ultimate cairn of the era. In addition, Anitkabir appearance Seljuq and Ottoman architectural and beautification features. For example, the bump of the architecture and the Hall of Honour are all Seljuq-style denticulate ornamentation.

Construction

The website alleged for Anitkabir was accepted as Rasattepe (Observation Hill), which, at the time of the architectural antagonism for Anitkabir, was a axial breadth in Ankara and could be apparent by all locations of the city. Archeological excavations unearthed artifacts acceptance to the Phrygian civilization, which were anxiously biconcave and put on affectation in the Building of Anatolian Civilizations, aswell in Ankara.

The architecture of Anitkabir, which took nine years and spanned four stages, commenced on October 9, 1944 with the commemoration of laying the foundation stone.

The aboriginal date of the construction, absolute the basic blasting and the architecture of the application bank of the Lions Road, started on October 9, 1944 and completed in 1945. The additional date of the construction, absolute the catacomb and the abetting barrio surrounding the august ground, started on September 29, 1945, and was completed on August 8, 1950. At this stage, due to problems accompanying to the mausoleum’s masonry and accurate anatomy foundations, some revisions had to be made. At the end of 1947, the blasting and insulation of the catacomb foundation was completed and animate reinforcements for the new 11 m. (36.1 ft.) top accurate foundation, able of afraid any affectionate of adjustment of the ground, had appear to abreast completion. The Entrance towers, a lot of locations of the alley network, the orchard installations, the acreage works and capital locations of the irrigation adjustment were aswell completed at this stage.

The august groundThe third date of the architecture was the architecture of the anchorage arch to the mausoleum, The Lions Road, and the august ground; the mausoleum’s upper-level bedrock pavement, the admirable stairs, adjustment of the admirable tombstone, and the accession of electricity, accouterments and heating systems.

The fourth and endure date of architecture was the laying of the Hall of Honour pavement, vaults beneath the ancillary linings, and Hall of Honour ambit bedrock profiles and bounden decorations, which was completed on September 1, 1953.

Revision of aboriginal plans

The Anitkabir activity originally had a alveolate beam aloft the catacomb agitated by the ambit columns. On December 4, 1951, the Government asked the architects about the achievability of abridgement architecture time by blurred the 28 m top beam of the Hall of Honour. Afterwards belief the subject, the architects assured that it was accessible to awning the beam with a able accurate slab instead of a bedrock vault. This change bargain the weight of the beam and aswell alone assertive constructional risks.

Surface reliefs and stones

Wall reliefAll stones and marbles were brought in from assorted locations of Turkey, to be a representation of Turkish People’s adherence to the architect of the republic. Easily candy absorptive travertine is acclimated on alien cladding of the accurate surfaces and marble is acclimated for the central surfaces of the Hall of Honour.

White travertine acclimated for the carve groups, lions abstracts and the catacomb columns was brought from Kayseri and the travertine acclimated central the architecture was brought from Polatli and Malik├Ây. The red and atramentous travertine that acclimated for paving the august arena and floors of the architecture came from Kayseri. Yellow travertine brought from ├çankiri was acclimated for architecture the Victory Reliefs, the Hall of Honour’s alien walls, and ambit columns of the august ground. The red, atramentous and chrism colour marble that was acclimated on the attic of the Hall of Honour were brought from Hatay, Adana and ├çanakkale, and for the centralized walls, tiger-patterned marble from Afyon and blooming marble from Bilecik was used. The sarcophogus, a caked tomb bedrock belief 40 tons, was brought from Adana and the white marble accoutrement the abandon of the sarcophagus were aswell from Afyon.

Layout

There are four capital locations to Anitkabir: the Street of Lions, the August Plaza, the Hall of Account (location of Atat├╝rk’s tomb) and the Accord Esplanade that surrounds the monument.

Street of Lions

The access at the cairn is a 262 meters continued banal aisle that is lined on both abandon by 12 pairs of lions carved in a appearance like the Hittite archaeological finds. The lions represent Anatolia and are sitting to accompanying represent both ability peace. There is a 5 cm. gap amid the paving stones on the Street of Lions to ensure that visitors yield their time and beam admiring behavior on their way to Atat├╝rk’s tomb.

August Plaza

The August Plaza is anchored at the end of the Lions Road. The breadth is 129 m. continued and 84 m. advanced and was advised to board 15,000 people. The attic is busy with 373 rug and kilim (Turkish carpet) patterns, and is fabricated of travertine in assorted colors.

Hall of Honor

The Hall of Account is the iconic attribute of Anitkabir and the breadth of Atat├╝rk’s tomb. The anatomy is 41.65 x 57.35 m. in plan and rises to a acme of 17 m, with the columns themselves barometer 14.4 meters.

Atat├╝rk’s tomb is anchored appropriate beneath the allegorical 40-ton sarcophagus in the arena attic of The Hall of Honor, and Atat├╝rk’s body is active beneath this in a appropriate Tomb Allowance in the basement level. The allowance has an octagonal plan in Seljuk and Ottoman architectural styles, and its cone-shaped beam is inlaid with gold mosaics.

Accord Park

The esplanade that surrounds the cairn is alleged a Accord Esplanade in account of Atat├╝rk’s acclaimed announcement “Peace at home, accord in the world.” It contains about 50,000 adorning trees, flowers and shrubs in 104 varieties, donated from about 25 countries.

Towers, statues, museum

Within the Anitkabir website there are ten architecture anchored in a balanced arrangement. These betoken the ethics that afflicted the Turkish nation and the conception of the Republic of Turkey. The architecture are agnate in agreement of planning and structure: they are rectangular, abutting to a square, with cone-shaped roofs. Bronze arrowheads are placed on the top of the roofs, like in acceptable Turkish itinerant tents. Central the towers, geometric beautification aggressive by acceptable Turkish carpeting (kilim) patterns and motifs, can be begin on the towers’ ceilings in adorn technique. There are aswell inscriptions of quotes by Atat├╝rk that accord to the affair of that tower.

Ability Tower

The abatement central the Ability Belfry shows a adolescent man continuing beeline and captivation a brand with both easily while an hawkeye is perching on a bedrock beside him. The hawkeye represents ability and ability in belief and in Seljuk art, and the adolescent man with the brand represents the Turkish nation arresting its independence.

Women bronze group

In foreground of the Ability Belfry there is a bronze accumulation of three women in Turkish civic costumes. The two women at the abandon are captivation a ample band extensive to the ground. This wreath, fabricated up of atom sheafs, represents the abounding country. The woman on the larboard with a cup in her all-inclusive duke is allurement for God’s benevolence for Atat├╝rk, and the woman in the middle, accoutrement her face with her hand, is crying. This accumulation represents the pride of Turkish women, and their acerbity and assurance even in the centermost affliction of accident Atat├╝rk.

Abandon Tower

The abatement central the Abandon Belfry shows a amount of an angel captivation a area of cardboard and a appearance horse next to it. The angel amount symbolizes the asceticism of abandon and the area of cardboard symbolizes the Turkish Declaration of Freedom. The horse amount is a attribute of both abandon and independence.

Men bronze group

In foreground of the Abandon Belfry there is a bronze accumulation fabricated up of three men. The man at the appropriate with a helmet and covering represents a Turkish soldier; on the larboard with a book in his duke is a Turkish adolescence and intellectual; abaft both of these, in apple clothing, is a Turkish peasant. By the afflicting expressions in the faces of all three statues, the acerbity and discipline of the Turkish nation are expressed.

Mehmet├žik Tower

The Mehmet├žik Belfry is anchored on the right-hand ancillary of the end of the Lion’s Road. The abatement on the exoteric bluff depicts a mehmet├žik (Turkish bottom soldier) abrogation home for the front. In this composition, a sad but appreciative mother captivation her duke on the accept of her son sends him to the war for the country. There is a bookstore and a allowance boutique in this belfry for visitors absorbed in affairs online writing about Anitkabir and Atat├╝rk.

Victory Tower

The dates of the nation’s a lot of important three victories and Atat├╝rk’s words about these victories are inscribed on the walls of this tower. Central the tower, the gun carriage, which agitated Atat├╝rk’s casket from Dolmabah├že Palace to Sarayburnu and handed over to the Navy on November 19, 1938 is on display.

Accord Tower

A abatement agreement cogent Atat├╝rk’s assumption of Accord at home, accord in the apple is inscribed central the belfry walls. In this relief, peasants and a soldier amount attention them by captivation out his brand are depicted. This soldier symbolizes the Turkish Army, the able and 18-carat babysitter of the peace, acceptance humans to reside their circadian lives in accord anchored by the Turkish Army.

23rd April Tower

On the central walls of this belfry is a abatement depicting the aperture of the Turkish Admirable Civic Assembly on April 23, 1920. The woman continuing in this abatement is captivation a cardboard in her duke with an inscription of the date. The key in her added duke symbolizes the aperture of the Assembly.

Atat├╝rk’s Cadillac car, acclimated amid 1936 and 1938, is on affectation in this tower.

Belfry of Reforms

This belfry is the addendum of the building and Atat├╝rk’s apparel are apparent here. The abatement central the belfry bank shows a anemic duke captivation the bake about to extinguish, emblematic the atrophy of the Ottoman Empire. Another, able duke adopting a beaming bake to the skies symbolizes the reforms with which the new Turkish Republic and Atat├╝rk aloft the Turkish Nation to the akin of abreast civilization.

Misak-i Millî (National Pact) Tower

The belfry is at the access to the building (see below) and the abatement central this belfry symbolizes the bounden in unity. The abatement shows four easily abutting on a brand hilt. This agreement symbolizes the nation’s accepted adjuration to save the Turkish Country.

Anitkabir Atat├╝rk Museum

Anitkabir Atat├╝rk Building opened on June 21, 1960. Atat├╝rk’s claimed items, his wardrobe, and some of the ability presented to him are on affectation in this museum. Atat├╝rk’s medals, decorations and some claimed items donated to the building by his adopted accouchement are aswell apparent in the museum.

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